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Mental timing studies may be influenced by powerful cognitive illusions that can produce an asymmetry in their rate of progress relative to neuronal timing studies. Both types of timing research are also governed by a temporal asymmetry, expressed by the fact that the direction of causation must follow time's arrow. Here we refresh our earlier suggestion(More)
Efferent nerves coursing from the brain to the lateral eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, increase its nighttime sensitivity to light. They release octopamine, which produces a categorical increase of photoreceptor response duration in vitro. Analogous in vivo timing effects on the electroretinogram (ERG) were demonstrated when octopamine was(More)
Efferents from the brain of Limulus course toward its lateral eye and release octopamine and substance P into it. These neurotransmitters have previously been found to act as neuromodulators in this visual system by altering the size of its responses to light. We report here that both also modulate the timing of the receptor potentials (RPs) evoked by brief(More)
Conventional methods have long been used to record electroretinograms (ERGs) from the surface of the lateral eye of Limulus, the horseshoe crab. But, using these methods, the convexity of this eye has sometimes led to electrode problems that deterred acceptance of the validity of unexpected and unfamiliar phenomena. To deal with the electrode problem, a new(More)
Excised eyes of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) have long provided robust preparations for fundamental studies of the visual neuroscience of photoreceptors. Such preparations are particularly useful for immersion in perfusion chambers whose perfusate can be varied as needed. Little attention has been paid in the past to the osmotic properties of(More)
Considering a variety of quite different candidate neural codes, Cheng and Wasserman [(1996) Biol Cybern 75, 93-103, 105-115] reported data which suggested that amplitude codes transmitted information more faithfully than temporal codes. Reanalyzing their data, the present study measured how well size and time represented information resident within the(More)
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