Gerald Martin

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We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)
  • Christopher A Parsons, Johan Sulaeman, Sheridan Titman, Jonathan Karpoff, Allison Koester, Scott Lee +4 others
  • 2015
Financial misconduct (FM) varies across cities, and over time. City-level FM is highly correlated with political corruption (enforced non-locally), and with ethically questionable (but not illegal) behavior by local physicians, both inconsistent with regional variation in enforcement. Further, among firms for whom detection is likely very similar(More)
Many developing countries assign local governments increasing responsibilities in fighting poverty. This requires local social policy to go beyond the execution of centrally designed and funded education and health programs. Hence, local governments and their partners have both an opportunity and a need to analyze key local bottlenecks for poverty reduction(More)
  • Christopher A Parsons, Johan Sulaeman, Sheridan Titman, Jonathan Karpoff, Allison Koester, Scott Lee +1 other
  • 2015
We find that a corrupt local environment amplifies the effects of financial distress. Following regional spikes in financial misconduct, credit becomes both more expensive and harder to obtain for nearby borrowers – even those not implicated themselves. This is particularly harmful for cash-constrained firms, which cut investment more sharply and lay off(More)
We have used a large pattern test mask and a specific arrangement of structures on a wafer for direct measurement of an average planarization length for copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) processes. We propose new minimum, maximum, and average planarization length definitions , based on up and down area measurements as a function of trench width.(More)
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