Gerald Martin

Learn More
The present update on the global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex spoligotypes provides both the octal and binary descriptions of the spoligotypes for M. tuberculosis complex, including Mycobacterium bovis, from >90 countries (13,008 patterns grouped into 813 shared types containing 11,708 isolates and 1,300 orphan patterns). A number of(More)
To study the dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae, 79 European isolates from cattle, humans, and other hosts were examined by spoligotyping and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Among a total of 11 different spoligotypes identified, type C1 proved to be predominant (n = 62). Five of the spoligotypes are described(More)
An efficient system was developed for direct plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf explants of Embelia ribes Burm. f., a vulnerable medicinal woody climber of the Western Ghats of India. The in vitro procedure involved three steps that included induction of shoot initials from leaf tissue, regeneration and elongation of shoots from the shoot(More)
In Germany, tuberculous lesions in slaughtered pigs due to infection with members of the Mycobacterium avium complex are increasingly reported. Contaminated food originating from pig or other livestock is discussed as potential source of human infection. M. avium isolates from man (n=45), pig (n=29), and cattle (n=13) were characterised by restriction(More)
A micropropagation protocol was developed for Celastrus paniculatus, a vulnerable medicinal plant. Cultures were initiated from nodal explants collected from young shoots of a 12-year-old plant in MS basal medium. An average of five shoots were produced in MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l−1 benzyl adenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l−1 naphthalene acetic acid(More)
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates(More)
A recent European Union Directive required member states to put monitoring and control programmes in place, of which vaccination is a central component. Live Salmonella vaccines generally confer better protection than killed vaccines, because the former stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Administering Salmonella bacteria orally to newly(More)
Five commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum were evaluated at the individual animal level using sera from 286 paratuberculosis-free and 110 paratuberculosis-infected dairy cattle. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the tests were estimated after(More)
A protocol was developed for rapid clonal propagation of the important medicinal climber, Tinospora cordifolia, through in vitro culture of mature nodal explants. Shoots were initiated on both Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2.32 μM kinetin (KIN). Of the two basal media tested, WPM was found to be superior to(More)
A 76-year-old white male presented with progressive malaise, weight loss and dyspnea at rest. Echocardiography revealed a circular pericardial effusion and global hypokinesia. Pericardiocentesis showed a purulent exudate and microbiologic examination revealed Mycobacterium bovis fully sensitive to isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, rifampin, and(More)