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Graph theory almost certainly began when, in 1735, Leonhard Euler solved a popular puzzle about bridges. The East Prussian city of Königsberg (now Kalin-ingrad) occupies both banks of the River Pregel and an island, Kneiphof, which lies in the river at a point where it branches into two parts. There were seven bridges that spanned the various sections of(More)
Gauss, in his work on quadratic reciprocity, defined in [1] an analogue to the binomial coefficients: n r i (x 1 1-D C x "-1-!) • • • (x n-k + 1-l) L k J (x k-l)(x k-X-!) • • • (x-1) ' n and k positive integers. In o r d e r to make the analogy to the binomial coefficients more complete, it is customary to let [!] • ' • for n = 0, 1, 2, • • • , and H-• for(More)