Gerald J. Calais

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Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are initially shown to have evolved from Cognitive Maps (CMs). The components and functions of FCMs are described and their superiority over CMs is explained. A hypothetical fuzzy cognitive map, employing a nine-step procedure and data tables, is then used to demonstrate the impact of drug addiction in America. Conclusions are(More)
It is generally accepted that hypoxia is a common occurrence in many experimental and human tumours and that it is a major cause of local failure after radiotherapy. Many attempts have been made over the last years to eliminate this problem. One of the manoeuvres to improve tumour oxygenation is to manipulate the binding affinity of oxygen (O2) and(More)
This article describes game theory from a restricted perspective and elucidates how it facilitates interdisciplinary learning. Initially, game theory’s basic components and the Prisoner’s Dilemma, used throughout the article to analyze game theory, are described. Next, the normal (or strategic) form and the extensive form for representing game theory are(More)
Balanced reading instruction proposes an alternative to phonics only or whole language only programs; offers an efficient mixture of instructional approaches; and reconciles an array of learning styles. Although this balanced approach can not be interpreted monolithically, due to the various ways that whole language and phonics can be taught and combined,(More)
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