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One of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is the neurofibrillary tangle, which contains paired helical filaments (PHFs) composed of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Tau is hyperphosphorylated in PHFs, and phosphorylation of tau abolishes its ability to bind microtubules and promote microtubule assembly. Restoring the function of(More)
A subset of stem cells, termed the "side population" (SP), has been identified in several tissues in mammalian species. These cells maintain a high efflux capability for antimitotic drugs. We have investigated whether functionally equivalent stem cells also may be detected in human cancers. We initially examined primary tumor cells from 23 patients with(More)
Male gametes originate from a small population of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). These cells are believed to divide infinitely and to support spermatogenesis throughout life in the male. Here, we developed a strategy for the establishment of SSC lines from embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells are able to undergo meiosis, are able to generate haploid(More)
Phosphorylation on a serine or threonine residue preceding proline (Ser/Thr-Pro) is a key regulatory mechanism, and the conformation of certain phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro bonds is regulated specifically by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Whereas the inhibition of Pin1 induces apoptosis, Pin1 is strikingly overexpressed in a subset of human tumours. Here we show(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that somatic stem cells have a more flexible potential than expected, whether put into tissue or cultured under different conditions. Bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can transdifferentiate into multilineage cells, such as muscle of mesoderm, lung and liver of endoderm, and brain and skin of ectoderm origin. Here we show(More)
Phosphorylation on serines or threonines preceding proline (Ser/Thr-Pro) is a major signaling mechanism. The conformation of a subset of phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs is regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Inhibition of Pin1 induces apoptosis and may also contribute to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the role of(More)
Progenitor cells with differentiation capacity along multiple mesengenic lineages are attractive tools for numerous purposes in regenerative medicine. Such mesengenic progenitor cells have been isolated from adult mammalian bone marrow, and we here report placental tissue as an alternative source for these cells. By means of dissection/proteinase digestion(More)
Germ cells must develop along distinct male or female paths to produce the spermatozoa or oocyte required for sexual reproduction. Male germline stem cells maintain spermatogenesis in the postnatal human testis. Here we show that a small population of bone marrow cells is able to transdifferentiate to male germ cell-like cells. We show expression of early(More)
The genes of the piwi family are defined by conserved PAZ and Piwi domains and play important roles in stem-cell self-renewal, RNA silencing and translational regulation in various organisms. Both, mouse and human Piwil2 genes, members of the piwi gene family, are specifically expressed in testis. We report here enhanced expression of the human Piwil2 gene(More)
The hematopoietic stem cell underlying acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is controversial. Flow cytometry and the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 were previously used to identify a distinct subset of murine hematopoietic stem cells, termed the side population (SP), which rapidly expels Hoechst dye and can reconstitute the bone marrow of lethally irradiated mice.(More)