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Trypanosoma brucei and related pathogens transcribe most genes as polycistronic arrays that are subsequently processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Expression is frequently regulated post-transcriptionally by cis-acting elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs). GPEET and EP procyclins are the major surface proteins of procyclic (insect midgut) forms of T.(More)
The serine/threonine-specific protein kinase C (PKC)-theta is predominantly expressed in T cells and localizes to the center of the immunological synapse upon T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signaling. T cells deficient in PKC-theta exhibit reduced interleukin (IL)-2 production and proliferative responses in vitro, however, its significance in vivo remains(More)
We have recently shown that stable expression of an epitope-tagged cDNA of the hepatocyte- enriched transcription factor, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)4, in dedifferentiated rat hepatoma H5 cells is sufficient to provoke reexpression of a set of hepatocyte marker genes. Here, we demonstrate that the effects of HNF4 expression extend to the reestablishment(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are major components of the innate immune response of epithelial cells. In insect vectors, these peptides may play a role in the control of gut pathogens. We have analyzed antimicrobial peptides produced by the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi, after challenge by injected bacteria or feeding with bacteria or the protozoan parasite(More)
Natural killer (NK) T cells are activated by synthetic or self-glycolipids and implicated in innate host resistance to a range of viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens. Despite the immunogenicity of microbial lipoglycans and their promiscuous binding to CD1d, no pathogen-derived glycolipid antigen presented by this pathway has been identified to date.(More)
Leishmania infections involve an acute phase of replication within macrophages, typically associated with pathology. After recovery parasites persist for long periods, which can lead to severe disease upon reactivation. Unlike the role of host factors, parasite factors affecting persistence are poorly understood. Leishmania major lacking phosphoglycans(More)
Stromal cells in lymphoid tissues regulate lymphocyte recruitment and survival through the expression of specific chemokines and cytokines. During inflammation, the same signals recruit lymphocytes to the site of injury; however, the "lymphoid" stromal (LS) cells producing these signals remain poorly characterized. We find that mouse inflammatory lesions(More)
Leishmania promastigotes synthesize an abundance of phosphoglycans, either attached to the cell surface through phosphatidylinositol anchors (lipophosphoglycan, LPG) or secreted as protein-containing glycoconjugates. These phosphoglycans are thought to promote the survival of the parasite within both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The relative(More)
Different Leishmania species rely to different extents on abundant glycoconjugates, such as lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and related molecules, in mammalian infections. Previously, we showed that Leishmania major deletion mutants lacking the Golgi GDP-mannose transporter LPG2, which is required for assembly of the dominant phosphoglycan (PG) repeats of LPG, were(More)
Dendritic cells can initiate antimicrobial responses by CD1-mediated presentation of pathogen-derived glycolipids. We show that the protozoan Leishmania donovani inhibits CD1 expression and prevents activation of CD1-restricted T cells by dendritic cells. Evasion of presentation by CD1 may represent a Leishmania survival strategy to avoid recognition of(More)