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Most plasmalemmal proteins organize in submicrometer-sized clusters whose architecture and dynamics are still enigmatic. With syntaxin 1 as an example, we applied a combination of far-field optical nanoscopy, biochemistry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, and simulations to show that clustering can be explained by(More)
The flotillins/reggie proteins are associated with noncaveolar membrane microdomains and have been implicated in the regulation of a clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway. Endocytosis is required for the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and thus to initiate the release of the neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium respond to environmental odorants. Recent studies reveal that these OSNs also respond to semiochemicals such as pheromones and that main olfactory input modulates animal reproduction, but the transduction mechanism for these chemosignals is not fully understood. Previously, we determined that(More)
We demonstrate far-field fluorescence microscopy with a focal-plane resolution of 15-20 nm in biological samples. The 10- to 12-fold multilateral increase in resolution below the diffraction barrier has been enabled by the elimination of molecular triplet state excitation as a major source of photobleaching of a number of dyes in stimulated emission(More)
We report a substantial signal gain in fluorescence microscopy by ensuring that transient molecular dark states with lifetimes >1 micros, such as the triplet state relax between two molecular absorption events. For GFP and Rhodamine dye Atto532, we observed a 5-25-fold increase in total fluorescence yield before molecular bleaching when strong(More)
In optical microscopy, most red-emitting dyes provide only moderate performance due to unspecific binding, poor labeling efficiency, and insufficient brightness. Here we report on four novel red fluororescent dyes, including the first phosphorylated dye, created by combining a rigidized rhodamine backbone with various polar groups. They exhibit large(More)
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