Gerald D Kidd

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The effect of spatial separation of sources on the masking of a speech signal was investigated for three types of maskers, ranging from energetic to informational. Normal-hearing listeners performed a closed-set speech identification task in the presence of a masker at various signal-to-noise ratios. Stimuli were presented in a quiet sound field. The signal(More)
This study examined the role of focused attention along the spatial (azimuthal) dimension in a highly uncertain multitalker listening situation. The task of the listener was to identify key words from a target talker in the presence of two other talkers simultaneously uttering similar sentences. When the listener had no a priori knowledge about target(More)
The ability to understand speech in a multi-source environment containing informational masking may depend on the perceptual arrangement of signal and masker objects in space. In normal-hearing listeners, Arbogast et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2086-2098 (2002)] found an 18-dB spatial release from a primarily informational masker, compared to 7 dB for a(More)
Informational masking was reduced using three stimulus presentation schemes that were intended to perceptually segregate the signal from the masker. The maskers were sets of sinusoids chosen randomly in frequency and intensity on each stimulus interval or, in some conditions, on every masker burst in a series of bursts within intervals. Masker components(More)
Previous work has indicated that target-masker similarity, as well as stimulus uncertainty, influences the amount of informational masking that occurs in detection, discrimination, and recognition tasks. In each of five experiments reported in this paper, the detection threshold for a tonal target in random multitone maskers presented simultaneously with(More)
Spatial release from masking was studied in a three-talker soundfield listening experiment. The target talker was presented at 0 degrees azimuth and the maskers were either colocated or symmetrically positioned around the target, with a different masker talker on each side. The symmetric placement greatly reduced any "better ear" listening advantage. When(More)
A procedure is described for determining the absolute sound pressure at the inner end of the ear canal when a sound source is coupled to the ear, for frequencies in the range 8-20 kHz. The transducer that generates the sound is coupled to the ear canal through a lossy tube, yielding a source impedance that is approximately matched to the characteristic(More)
Arbogast et al. [1] found a large release from masking obtained by the spatial separation of a target talker and a competing speech masker. Both signal and masker were sentences from the Coordinate Response Measure corpus processed by extracting the envelopes of 15 narrow frequency bands and using the envelopes to modulate carrier tones at the center of(More)
This study investigated the interaction between hearing loss, reverberation, and age on the benefit of spatially separating multiple masking talkers from a target talker. Four listener groups were tested based on hearing status and age. On every trial listeners heard three different sentences spoken simultaneously by different female talkers. Listeners(More)
A nonspeech pattern identification task was used to study the role of spatial separation of sources on auditory masking in multisource listening environments. The six frequency patterns forming the signal set were comprised of sequences of eight 60-ms tone bursts. Bursts of masking sounds were played synchronously with the signals. The main variables in the(More)