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This study examined the role of focused attention along the spatial (azimuthal) dimension in a highly uncertain multitalker listening situation. The task of the listener was to identify key words from a target talker in the presence of two other talkers simultaneously uttering similar sentences. When the listener had no a priori knowledge about target(More)
Informational masking ͑IM͒ has a long history and is currently receiving considerable attention. Nevertheless, there is no clear and generally accepted picture of how IM should be defined, and once defined, explained. In this letter, consideration is given to the problems of defining IM and specifying research that is needed to better understand and model(More)
Previous work has indicated that target-masker similarity, as well as stimulus uncertainty, influences the amount of informational masking that occurs in detection, discrimination, and recognition tasks. In each of five experiments reported in this paper, the detection threshold for a tonal target in random multitone maskers presented simultaneously with(More)
This study investigated the interaction between hearing loss, reverberation, and age on the benefit of spatially separating multiple masking talkers from a target talker. Four listener groups were tested based on hearing status and age. On every trial listeners heard three different sentences spoken simultaneously by different female talkers. Listeners(More)
Spatial release from masking was studied in a three-talker soundfield listening experiment. The target talker was presented at 0 degrees azimuth and the maskers were either colocated or symmetrically positioned around the target, with a different masker talker on each side. The symmetric placement greatly reduced any "better ear" listening advantage. When(More)
The effect of spatial separation of sources on the masking of a speech signal was investigated for three types of maskers, ranging from energetic to informational. Normal-hearing listeners performed a closed-set speech identification task in the presence of a masker at various signal-to-noise ratios. Stimuli were presented in a quiet sound field. The signal(More)
The benefit of wearing hearing aids in multitalker, reverberant listening environments was evaluated in a study of speech-on-speech masking with two groups of listeners with hearing loss (younger/older). Listeners selectively attended a known spatial location in two room conditions (low/high reverberation) and identified target speech in the presence of two(More)
The ability to understand speech in a multi-source environment containing informational masking may depend on the perceptual arrangement of signal and masker objects in space. In normal-hearing listeners, Arbogast et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 2086-2098 (2002)] found an 18-dB spatial release from a primarily informational masker, compared to 7 dB for a(More)
The hearing thresholds of 37 young adults (18-26 years) were measured at 13 frequencies (8, 9,10,...,20 kHz) using a newly developed high-frequency audiometer. All subjects were screened at 15 dB HL at the low audiometric frequencies, had tympanometry within normal limits, and had no history of significant hearing problems. The audiometer delivers sound(More)