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This study examined the role of focused attention along the spatial (azimuthal) dimension in a highly uncertain multitalker listening situation. The task of the listener was to identify key words from a target talker in the presence of two other talkers simultaneously uttering similar sentences. When the listener had no a priori knowledge about target(More)
Informational masking ͑IM͒ has a long history and is currently receiving considerable attention. Nevertheless, there is no clear and generally accepted picture of how IM should be defined, and once defined, explained. In this letter, consideration is given to the problems of defining IM and specifying research that is needed to better understand and model(More)
Previous work has indicated that target-masker similarity, as well as stimulus uncertainty, influences the amount of informational masking that occurs in detection, discrimination, and recognition tasks. In each of five experiments reported in this paper, the detection threshold for a tonal target in random multitone maskers presented simultaneously with(More)
The effect of spatial separation of sources on the masking of a speech signal was investigated for three types of maskers, ranging from energetic to informational. Normal-hearing listeners performed a closed-set speech identification task in the presence of a masker at various signal-to-noise ratios. Stimuli were presented in a quiet sound field. The signal(More)
This study investigated the interaction between hearing loss, reverberation, and age on the benefit of spatially separating multiple masking talkers from a target talker. Four listener groups were tested based on hearing status and age. On every trial listeners heard three different sentences spoken simultaneously by different female talkers. Listeners(More)
Spatial release from masking was studied in a three-talker soundfield listening experiment. The target talker was presented at 0 degrees azimuth and the maskers were either colocated or symmetrically positioned around the target, with a different masker talker on each side. The symmetric placement greatly reduced any "better ear" listening advantage. When(More)
The hearing thresholds of 37 young adults (18-26 years) were measured at 13 frequencies (8, 9,10,...,20 kHz) using a newly developed high-frequency audiometer. All subjects were screened at 15 dB HL at the low audiometric frequencies, had tympanometry within normal limits, and had no history of significant hearing problems. The audiometer delivers sound(More)
This study examined whether increasing the similarity between informational maskers and signals would increase the amount of masking obtained in a nonspeech pattern identification task. The signals were contiguous sequences of pure-tone bursts arranged in six narrow-band spectro-temporal patterns. The informational maskers were sequences of multitone bursts(More)
Measures of energetic and informational masking were obtained from 46 listeners with sensorineural hearing loss. The task was to detect the presence of a sequence of eight contiguous 60-ms bursts of a pure tone embedded in masker bursts that were played synchronously with the signal. The masker was either a sequence of Gaussian noise bursts (energetic(More)