Gerald C. Goeringer

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Hydroxyurea (HU) is a potent mammalian teratogen. Within 2-4 hours after maternal injection, HU causes 1) a rapid episode of embryonic cell death and 2) profound inhibition of embryonic DNA synthesis. A variety of antioxidants delays the onset of embryonic cell death and reduces the incidence of birth defects. Antioxidants do not block the inhibition of DNA(More)
Paclitaxel is an anticancer drug that has demonstrated severe embryotoxicity in chicks. This embryotoxicity is reduced by liposome encapsulation of the drug. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of liposome encapsulation for reducing paclitaxel embryotoxicity in rats. Wistar rats were treated with paclitaxel on day 8 of pregnancy (plug =(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular debris, an indicator of cell death, appears in limb buds of gestational day 12 rabbit embryos 4 hr after either a subcutaneous injection of hydroxyurea to pregnant rabbits or an injection of hydroxyurea into the exocoelomic cavities of the embryos. This episode of early cell death appears to be central to the teratogenic action of(More)
Hydroxyurea (HU) is a potent teratogen that causes a characteristic, rapidly occurring episode of embryonic cell death 2 to 4 h after subcutaneously injecting 650 mg/kg of HU into pregnant New Zealand White rabbits on gestational day 12. Previous studies documented the ability of the phenolic antioxidant, propyl gallate, to delay the onset of embryonic cell(More)
Taxol, an inhibitor of microtubule disassembly, is currently under investigation in the therapy of several human cancers. The current investigation was undertaken to characterize potential taxol developmental toxicity in chicks. On one of days 1-4 of incubation, taxol was administered in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or olive oil in a range of doses, the highest(More)
Taxol, an inhibitor of microtubule disaggregation, is used in the therapy of breast, ovarian, and other human malignancies. The toxicity of taxol administration is due in part to the polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremaphor) vehicle in which it is administered; taxol embryotoxicity appears also to be partially attributable to vehicle toxicity. Liposome(More)
Beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for 600 d experience a significant change in pancreatic elastase levels, as measured in tissue homogenates, compared with their sham-exposed controls. Greater elastase activity was found in the high-nicotine cigarette smokers than in the low-nicotine cigarette smokers. Levels of serum alpha 1-antitrypsin, an(More)
Hydroxylamine (HA) is an important reducing agent that is used in several industries. HA is a moderate irritant and a powerful inducer of methemoglobinemia. HA has been shown to react readily with DNA in vitro. Several chemical derivatives of HA are potent developmental toxicants, whereas HA has been reported to cause no developmentally toxic effects. Since(More)
Hydroxyurea (HU) is a swiftly acting cytotoxic teratogen and an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. Within 2 h of maternal treatment, HU causes necrosis in proliferating tissues of rabbit embryos on gestational day 12. Co-administration of the antioxidant propyl gallate (PG) delays the onset of necrosis until 6 h and ameliorates the teratogenic effects seen at(More)