Learn More
The 434 repressor binds more tightly to OR1 than it does to OR3. The repressor makes several specific contacts with the symmetrically arrayed outer four base-pairs of the 14 base-pair site, and no specific contacts to the central six base-pairs. The sequence of the outer base-pairs of OR1 and OR3 differs only by an A-->G substitution at position 4 in one(More)
Induction of a lysogen of a lambdoid bacteriophage usually involves RecA-stimulated autoproteolysis of the bacteriophage repressor protein. Previous work on the phage repressors showed that the monomeric form of the protein is the target of RecA. Our previous work indicated that in the case of bacteriophage 434, virtually none of the repressor is present as(More)
The repressor of phage 434 binds to six operator sites on the phage chromosome. A comparison of the sequences of these 14-base-pair (bp) operator sites reveals a striking pattern: at five of the six sites, the symmetrically arrayed outer eight base pairs (four in each half-site) are identical and the remaining site differs at only one position (Fig. 1b). In(More)
Bacterially derived exotoxins kill eukaryotic cells by inactivating factors and/or pathways that are universally conserved among eukaryotic organisms. The genes that encode these exotoxins are commonly found in bacterial viruses (bacteriophages). In the context of mammals, these toxins cause diseases ranging from cholera to diphtheria to enterohemorrhagic(More)
The bacteriophage 434 repressor regulates gene expression by binding with differing affinities to the six operator sites on the phage chromosome. The symmetrically arrayed outer eight base pairs (four in each half-site) of these 14-base-pair operators are highly conserved but the middle four bases are divergent. Although these four base pairs are not in(More)
The P22 c2 repressor protein (P22R) binds to DNA sequence-specifically and helps to direct the temperate lambdoid bacteriophage P22 to the lysogenic developmental pathway. We describe the 1.6 A X-ray structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of P22R in a complex with a DNA fragment containing the synthetic operator sequence [d(ATTTAAGATATCTTAAAT)]2. This(More)
The affinity of synthetic P22 operators for P22 repressor varies with the base sequence at the operator's center. At 100 mM KCl, the affinity of these operators for P22 repressor varies over a 10-fold range. Dimethylsulfate protection experiments indicate that the central bases of the P22 operator are not contacted by the repressor. The KD for the complex(More)
The binding of proteins to specific sequences of DNA is an important feature of virtually all DNA transactions. Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences using both direct readout (sensing types and positions of DNA functional groups) and indirect readout (sensing DNA conformation and deformability). Previously we showed that the P22 c2 repressor N-terminal(More)
The developmental decisions of bacteriophage 434 depend on the ability of 434 repressor and Cro to bind OR1 and OR3 with different relative affinities; repressor binds OR1 tighter than OR3, whereas Cro slightly prefers OR3 over OR1. Studies with operator mutants show that repressor's lower relative affinity for OR3 results from a deviation in the sequence(More)