Gerald A. Smith

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PURPOSE To determine whether the stiffness characteristics of the leg change during a treadmill run to voluntary exhaustion. METHODS Fifteen runners performed a test run at a constant speed that elicited approximately 80% of their .VO(2peak). The run was performed on a treadmill instrumented to measure vertical ground reaction forces; vertical stiffness(More)
Metabolic cost of submaximal running at constant speed is influenced by various factors including fatigue and kinematic characteristics. Metabolic costs typically drift upwards during extended running while stride characteristics often shift away from initial. When non-fatigued, experienced runners naturally optimize stride frequency in a manner that(More)
The measurement of maximum hand grip strength in ergonomic or clinical settings has been a useful means of assessing physical characteristics, progress in rehabilitation and degree of disability in upper extremity injuries. The validity of the peak forces observed in such measurements is compromised by the requirement of subject cooperation in giving a(More)
The mechanics of crosscountry skiing involve a complex interaction between the kinematic characteristics of the movement patterns and the kinetic relationships driving the motion. Crosscountry skiing techniques have been the subject of some biomechanical research, primarily involving the traditional diagonal stride technique. In the 1980s, skiers have(More)
BACKGROUND Whole body vibration has recently been used as a therapeutic intervention for the treatment of children with disabling conditions. Researchers of these studies observed encouraging results; however, children may not be capable of attenuating high vibration accelerations to the head because of low mass. The purpose of this study was to determine(More)
The 2dF (Two-degree Field) facility at the prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope provides multiple object spectroscopy over a 2◦ field of view. Up to 400 target fibres can be independently positioned by a complex robot. Two spectrographs provide spectra with resolutions of between 500 and 2000, over wavelength ranges of 440nm and 110nm respectively.(More)
Although there has been substantial research on the acute effects of static stretching on subsequent force and power development, the outcome after stretching of the antagonist musculature has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching of antagonist musculature on multiple strength and power measures.(More)
CONTEXT Quantification of the magnitudes of fluid resistance provided by water jets (currents) and their effect on energy expenditure during aquatic-treadmill walking is lacking in the scientific literature. OBJECTIVE To quantify the effect of water-jet intensity on jet velocity, drag force, and oxygen uptake (VO2) during aquatic-treadmill walking. (More)