Gerald A H Wells

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To provide information on dose–response and aid in modelling the exposure dynamics of the BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom groups of cattle were exposed orally to a range of different doses of brainstem homogenate of known infectious titre from clinical cases of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Interim data from this study was published(More)
The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human(More)
Studies to test the transmissibility of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent to pigs began in 1989. Parenteral inoculation of the agent by three routes simultaneously (intracranially, intravenously and intraperitoneally) produced disease with an incubation period range of 69-150 weeks. Pre-clinical pathological changes were detected in two pigs(More)
BACKGROUND Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated(More)
With the use of increasingly sensitive methods for detection of the abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) and infectivity in prion diseases, it has recently been shown that parts of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-affected cattle may become infected. It has been reported that prions spread to the central(More)
We report here an electron microscopic study of selected nervous system tissues from pigs infected experimentally with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Generally, the ultrastructural neuropathology of BSE-affected pig brain resembled that of BSE-affected cattle brain. Spongiform change, in the form of membrane-bound vacuoles separated by(More)
BACKGROUND Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform(More)
The efficacy of three pretreatment techniques for the detection of prion protein (PrP) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-affected brain tissue were compared using automated image analysis. The most abundant immunostaining was in the form of particulate expression observed in sections pretreated with hydrated(More)
BACKGROUND Various clinical protocols have been developed to aid in the clinical diagnosis of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which is confirmed by postmortem examinations based on vacuolation and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in the brain. The present study investigated the occurrence and progression of sixty(More)
The infectious agent responsible for the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in Great Britain is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) strain with uniform properties but the origin of this strain remains unknown. Based on the hypothesis that classical BSE may have been caused by a TSE strain present in sheep, cattle were inoculated(More)