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BACKGROUND Whether addition of corticosteroids to antibiotic treatment benefits patients with community-acquired pneumonia who are not in intensive care units is unclear. We aimed to assess effect of addition of dexamethasone on length of stay in this group, which might result in earlier resolution of pneumonia through dampening of systemic inflammation. (More)
BACKGROUND Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of one or more joints. In patients with this disease, T-cell reactivity to autologous heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) is associated with a favourable prognosis. We sought to identify HSP60 T-cell epitopes to find potential targets for HSP60(More)
The complex communities of microorganisms that colonise the human gastrointestinal tract play an important role in human health. The development of culture-independent molecular techniques has provided new insights in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we summarise the present state of the art on the intestinal microbiota with(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine prevents recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) in infants immunised at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age. We aimed to find out whether this vaccine also prevents AOM in older children who have had previous episodes of AOM. METHODS In this double-blind, randomised study, we enrolled 383 patients aged 1-7 years who had(More)
The neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been shown to play an important role as a mediator of neurogenic inflammation. Moreover, in vitro SP is capable of modulating the activity of lymphocytes, monocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. We have examined one of the early events that occur after addition of SP to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).(More)
A postulated mechanism for autoimmune disorders is that the immunoreactivity develops against bacterial antigens which show a high degree of sequence homology with mammalian proteins. The mycobacterial 65 kD heat shock protein (hsp) has been implicated in several forms of arthritis. Substantial amounts of the human 60 kD homologue (hsp60) were produced by(More)
BACKGROUND During acute pancreatitis (AP), oxidative stress contributes to intestinal barrier failure. We studied actions of multispecies probiotics on barrier dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental AP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Fifty-three male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups: 1) controls, non-operated, 2)(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II), both of which bind to type I IGF receptors, can modulate certain functions of the immune system. We, therefore, studied the expression of type I IGF receptors on purified subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using two-color flow cytometry, specific binding of a monoclonal antibody(More)
Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is the principle cellular substrate for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor signaling. After phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the YMXM or YXXM motifs, IRS-1 associates with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). This signaling pathway and the presence of an IRS-1-like molecule have been(More)