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Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD, EC 3.5.3.15) enzymes catalyze the conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline. This post-translational modification may have a big impact on the structure and function of the target protein. In this review, we will discuss the effects of citrullination and its involvement in several human diseases, including(More)
A new autoantibody activity, which is almost 100% specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), has been found. The essential part of the B-cell epitope is a modified form of arginine (ie citrulline). The conversion of protein-contained arginine to citrulline is an enzymatic process that is carried out by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD), an enzyme that appears(More)
OBJECTIVE Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by both degenerative and autoimmune features. In contrast to other inflammatory myopathies, myositis-specific autoantibodies had not been found in sIBM patients until recently. We used human skeletal muscle extracts as a source of antigens to detect autoantibodies in(More)
The presence or absence of antibodies to citrullinated peptides/proteins (ACPA) is an important parameter that helps a clinician set a diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis and, hence, initiate treatment. There are several commercial tests available to measure ACPA levels, although it can be difficult to decide what the best test for a given clinical(More)
The La (SS-B) autoimmune antigen is an RNA-binding protein that is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The spectrum of RNAs that interact with the La antigen includes species which also bind to the interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR. We have investigated whether the La antigen can regulate the activity of PKR and have observed(More)
Here we discuss the hypothesis that the RNA components of the Ro ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), the Y RNAs, can be processed into microRNAs (miRNAs). Although Ro RNPs, whose main protein components Ro60 and La are targeted by the immune system in several autoimmune diseases, were discovered many years ago, their function is still poorly understood. Indeed,(More)
INTRODUCTION Protein citrullination is present in the rheumatoid synovium, presumably contributing to the perpetuation of chronic inflammation, in the presence of specific autoimmunity. As a result, the present study examined the possibility that effective antirheumatic treatment will decrease the level of synovial citrullination. METHODS Synovial(More)
The discovery that citrullination was crucial for the recognition of antigens by the most disease-specific class of autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) had a huge impact on studies aimed at understanding autoimmunity in this disease. In addition to the detailed characterization of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, various studies have addressed(More)
In the nucleolus the U3 snoRNA is recruited to the 80S pre-rRNA processing complex in the dense fibrillar component (DFC). The U3 snoRNA is found throughout the nucleolus and has been proposed to move with the preribosomes to the granular component (GC). In contrast, the localization of other RNAs, such as the U8 snoRNA, is restricted to the DFC. Here we(More)
The 15.5K protein directly binds to the 5' stem-loop of the U4 small nuclear RNA, the small nucleolar (sno) RNA box C/D motif, and the U3 snoRNA-specific box B/C motif. The box B/C motif has also been shown to be essential for the association of the U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein-specific protein hU3-55K. We therefore set out to determine how 15.5K(More)