Georgia R Krivulka

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Recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans and of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rhesus monkeys have shown that resolution of the acute viral infection and control of the subsequent persistent infection are mediated by the antiviral cellular immune response. We comparatively assessed several vaccine vector(More)
Potent virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses elicited by candidate AIDS vaccines have recently been shown to control viral replication and prevent clinical disease progression after pathogenic viral challenges in rhesus monkeys. Here we show that viral escape from CTL recognition can result in the eventual failure of this partial immune(More)
With accumulating evidence indicating the importance of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in containing human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication in infected individuals, strategies are being pursued to elicit virus-specific CTLs with prototype HIV-1 vaccines. Here, we report the protective efficacy of vaccine-elicited immune responses against a(More)
The potential utility of plasmid DNA as an HIV-1 vaccination modality currently is an area of active investigation. However, recent studies have raised doubts as to whether plasmid DNA alone will elicit immune responses of sufficient magnitude to protect against pathogenic AIDS virus challenges. We therefore investigated whether DNA vaccine-elicited immune(More)
Virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are critical for control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. However, viral escape from CTL recognition can undermine this immune control. Here we demonstrate the high frequency and pattern of viral escape from dominant epitope-specific CTL in SIV gag DNA-vaccinated rhesus monkeys following a(More)
Because the vaccine vectors currently being evaluated in human populations all have significant limitations in their immunogenicity, novel vaccine strategies are needed for the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity. The nonpathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis was engineered as a vector expressing full-length human(More)
High levels of infused anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can completely protect macaque monkeys against mucosal chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. Antibody levels below the protective threshold do not prevent infection but can substantially reduce plasma viremia. To assess(More)
Although plasmid DNA vaccines induce potent cell-mediated immune responses and prime for antibody responses in experimental laboratory animals, their immunogenicity in humans has been less remarkable. A number of strategies have been proposed to improve the immunogenicity of these vaccines, including using novel means of vaccine delivery. In the present(More)
The first potential N-glycosylation site of the rabies virus glycoprotein, the antigen that carries epitopes for glycoprotein-specific T-cells and virus neutralizing antibodies, is glycosylated inefficiently. Recently, we showed that addition of a beta-N-acetyl-glucosamine moiety to the asparagine residue in the corresponding synthetic fragment V V E D E G(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that the generation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses specific for a diversity of viral epitopes will be needed for an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Here, we determine the frequencies of CTL responses specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus Gag p11C and HIV-1 Env p41A epitopes in(More)