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Animal genomes possess highly conserved cis-regulatory sequences that are often found near genes that regulate transcription and development. Researchers have proposed that the strong conservation of these sequences may affect the evolution of the surrounding genome, both by repressing rearrangement, and possibly by promoting duplicate gene retention.(More)
We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with(More)
We report sequences for nuclear lamins from the teleost fish Danio and six invertebrates. These include two cnidarians (Hydra and Tealia), one priapulid, two echinoderms, and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma. Combining these results with earlier data on Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and various vertebrates, the following conclusions on lamin(More)
The cloning of three intermediate filament proteins expressed at the gastrula stage (kl, Y1, X1) extends the size of the IF multigene family of Branchiostoma to at least 13 members. This is one of the largest protein families established for the lancelet. Sequence comparisons indicate five keratin orthologs, three of type I (E1, k1, Y1) and two of type II(More)
We identified a transcription factor of the onecut class in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus that represents an ortholog of the mammalian gene HNF6, the founding member of the onecut class of proteins. The isolated sea urchin gene, named SpOnecut, encodes a protein of 483 amino acids with one cut domain and a homeodomain. Phylogenetic analysis(More)
BACKGROUND The lancelet amphioxus (Cephalochordata) is a close relative of vertebrates and thus may enhance our understanding of vertebrate gene and genome evolution. In this context, the globins are one of the best studied models for gene family evolution. Previous biochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of an intracellular globin in notochord(More)
The 2R hypothesis predicting two genome duplications at the origin of vertebrates is highly controversial. Studies published so far include limited sequence data from organisms close to the hypothesized genome duplications. Through the comparison of a gene catalog from amphioxus, the closest living invertebrate relative of vertebrates, to 3453 single-copy(More)
BACKGROUND The genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has recently been sequenced because it is a major model system for the study of gene regulatory networks. Embryonic expression patterns for most genes are unknown, however. RESULTS Using large-scale screens on arrays carrying 50% to 70% of all genes, we identified novel(More)
The full-length sequence and developmental expression of an amphioxus Wnt gene (AmphiWnt8) are described. In amphioxus embryos, the expression patterns of AmphiWnt8 suggest patterning roles in the forebrain, in the hindgut, and in the paraxial mesoderm that gives rise to the muscular somites. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that a single Wnt8 subfamily gene(More)
Result Based on the analysis proposed in the article, we computed the robustness of expression of different genes against random parameter variations using Monte Carlo simulations. To this end, we performed multiple simulation runs with different parameter sets, each generating a distinct result. The resulting mRNA concentrations have been averaged for each(More)