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The early immune response to HIV-1 infection is likely to be an important factor in determining the clinical course of disease. Recent data indicate that the HIV-1 quasispecies that arise following a mucosal infection are usually derived from a single transmitted virus. Moreover, the finding that the first effective immune responses drive the selection of(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 relies on several host proteins for productive viral transcription. HIV-1 Tat-specific factor 1 (Tat-SF1) is among these cofactors that were identified by in vitro reconstituted transcription reactions with immunodepleted nuclear extracts. At the onset of this work, the prevailing hypothesis was that Tat-SF1 was a required cofactor for the(More)
Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env) amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several(More)
The HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env) membrane proximal external region (MPER) is an important vaccine target that in rare subjects can elicit neutralizing antibodies. One mechanism proposed for rarity of MPER neutralizing antibody generation is lack of reverted unmutated ancestor (putative naive B cell receptor) antibody reactivity with HIV-1 envelope. We have(More)
  • Marc C. Levesque, M. Anthony Moody, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Dawn J. Marshall, John F. Whitesides, Joshua D. Amos +19 others
  • 2009
BACKGROUND The antibody response to HIV-1 does not appear in the plasma until approximately 2-5 weeks after transmission, and neutralizing antibodies to autologous HIV-1 generally do not become detectable until 12 weeks or more after transmission. Moreover, levels of HIV-1-specific antibodies decline on antiretroviral treatment. The mechanisms of this delay(More)
The initial antibody response to HIV-1 is targeted to envelope (Env) gp41, and is nonneutralizing and ineffective in controlling viremia. To understand the origins and characteristics of gp41-binding antibodies produced shortly after HIV-1 transmission, we isolated and studied gp41-reactive plasma cells from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1. The(More)
BACKGROUND Establishment of peptide binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHCI) is a crucial step in the development of subunit vaccines and prediction of such binding could greatly reduce costs and accelerate the experimental process of identifying immunogenic peptides. Many methods have been applied to the prediction of peptide-MHCI(More)
UNLABELLED In the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial, IgG antibody (Ab) binding levels to variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 were an inverse correlate of risk of HIV-1 infection. To determine if V1V2-specific Abs cross-react with V1V2 from different HIV-1 subtypes, if the nature of the V1V2 antigen used to asses(More)
Affinity maturation of the antibody response is a fundamental process in adaptive immunity during which B-cells activated by infection or vaccination undergo rapid proliferation accompanied by the acquisition of point mutations in their rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and selection for increased affinity for the eliciting antigen. The rate of somatic(More)
  • Laurence Peiperl, Cecilia Morgan, Zoe Moodie, Hongli Li, Nina Russell, Barney S. Graham +3 others
  • 2010
BACKGROUND Individuals without prior immunity to a vaccine vector may be more sensitive to reactions following injection, but may also show optimal immune responses to vaccine antigens. To assess safety and maximal tolerated dose of an adenoviral vaccine vector in volunteers without prior immunity, we evaluated a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus(More)