Georgia D. Tomaras

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The precise identification of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) responsible for productive clinical infection could be instrumental in elucidating the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and in designing effective vaccines. Here, we developed a mathematical model of random viral evolution and, together with phylogenetic tree construction, used it to(More)
The early immune response to HIV-1 infection is likely to be an important factor in determining the clinical course of disease. Recent data indicate that the HIV-1 quasispecies that arise following a mucosal infection are usually derived from a single transmitted virus. Moreover, the finding that the first effective immune responses drive the selection of(More)
BACKGROUND In the RV144 trial, the estimated efficacy of a vaccine regimen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was 31.2%. We performed a case-control analysis to identify antibody and cellular immune correlates of infection risk. METHODS In pilot studies conducted with RV144 blood samples, 17 antibody or cellular assays met prespecified(More)
CD4 T follicular helper (TFH) cells interact with and stimulate the generation of antigen-specific B cells. TFH cell interaction with B cells correlates with production of SIV-specific immunoglobulins. However, the fate of TFH cells and their participation in SIV-induced antibody production is not well understood. We investigated the phenotype, function,(More)
BACKGROUND A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global priority. We tested the efficacy of a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus type 5 boost (DNA/rAd5) vaccine regimen in persons at increased risk for HIV-1 infection in the United States. METHODS At 21 sites, we randomly assigned 2504(More)
Identifying the viral epitopes targeted by broad neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that sometimes develop in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected subjects should assist in the design of vaccines to elicit similar responses. Here, we investigated the activities of a panel of 24 broadly neutralizing plasmas from subtype B- and C-infected donors(More)
Among nonneutralizing HIV-1 envelope antibodies (Abs), those capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity have been postulated to be important for control of HIV-1 infection. ADCC-mediating Ab must recognize HIV-1 antigens expressed on the membrane of infected cells and bind the Fcγ receptor (FcR) of the effector cell(More)
Analysis of correlates of risk of infection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial demonstrated that plasma IgG against the HIV-1 envelope (Env) variable region 1 and 2 inversely correlated with risk, whereas HIV-1 Env-specific plasma IgA responses directly correlated with risk. In the secondary analysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)(More)
A window of opportunity for immune responses to extinguish human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exists from the moment of transmission through establishment of the latent pool of HIV-1-infected cells. A critical time to study the initial immune responses to the transmitted/founder virus is the eclipse phase of HIV-1 infection (time from transmission(More)
Two human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (2F5 and 4E10) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope g41 cluster II membrane proximal external region (MPER) broadly neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates. However, these antibody specificities are rare, are not induced by Env immunization or HIV-1 infection, and are polyspecific and also react(More)