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Histone lysine methylation has been linked to the recruitment of mammalian DNA repair factor 53BP1 and putative fission yeast homolog Crb2 to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but how histone recognition is achieved has not been established. Here we demonstrate that this link occurs through direct binding of 53BP1 and Crb2 to histone H4. Using X-ray(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells initiate complex signalling cascades leading to growth arrest and DNA repair. The recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged sites requires the activation of the ubiquitination cascade controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, and methylation of histone H4 on lysine 20. However, molecular events that regulate the(More)
The pathogenic sequelae of BRCA1 mutation in human and mouse cells are mitigated by concomitant deletion of 53BP1, which binds histone H4 dimethylated at Lys20 (H4K20me2) to promote nonhomologous end joining, suggesting that a balance between BRCA1 and 53BP1 regulates DNA double strand-break (DSB) repair mechanism choice. Here we document that acetylation(More)
The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully(More)
DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is crucial for maintenance of methylation, gene regulation and chromatin stability. DNA mismatch repair, cell cycle regulation in post-mitotic neurons and neurogenesis are influenced by DNA methylation. Here we show that mutations in DNMT1 cause both central and peripheral neurodegeneration in one form of hereditary sensory(More)
53BP1 plays an important role in cellular response to DNA damage. It is thought to be the mammalian homologue of budding yeast Rad9 and/or fission yeast Crb2. Rad9/Crb2 are bona fide checkpoint proteins whose activation requires their corresponding C-terminal tandem BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) motifs, which mediate their oligomerization and phosphorylation at(More)
Microcephalin (MCPH1) is one of the causative genes for the autosomal recessive disorder, primary microcephaly, characterized by dramatic reduction in brain size and mental retardation. MCPH1 also functions in the DNA damage response, participating in cell cycle checkpoint control. However, how MCPH1 is regulated in the DNA damage response still remains(More)
Nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) secure ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter function. Distinct from traditional ABC transporters, ABCC9-encoded sulfonylurea receptors (SUR2A) form, with Kir6.2 potassium channels, ATP-sensitive K+ (K ATP) channel complexes. SUR2A contains ATPase activity harbored within NBD2 and, to a lesser degree, NBD1, with(More)
The Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein Nbs1 is a component of the MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) complex, central to the DNA damage response. While Nbs1 is generally believed to encompass a forkhead-associated domain linked to a breast cancer C-terminal (BRCT) domain, to date there is no experimental information on its three-dimensional structure. Through nuclear(More)
Replication protein A (RPA), the nuclear ssDNA-binding protein in eukaryotes, is essential to DNA replication, recombination, and repair. We have shown that a globular domain at the C terminus of subunit RPA32 contains a specific surface that interacts in a similar manner with the DNA repair enzyme UNG2 and repair factors XPA and RAD52, each of which(More)