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Amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) oligomers are synaptotoxic for excitatory cortical and hippocampal neurons and might play a role in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Recent results suggested that Aβ42 oligomers trigger activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), and its activation is increased in the brain of patients with AD. We show that(More)
During cerebral cortex development, precise control of precursor cell cycle length and cell cycle exit is required for balanced precursor pool expansion and layer-specific neurogenesis. Here, we defined the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p57(KIP2), an important regulator of G1 phase, using deletion mutant mice. Mutant mice displayed(More)
Mounting evidence indicates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family, including p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1), control not only cell cycle exit but also corticogenesis. Nevertheless, distinct activities of p57(Kip2) remain poorly defined. Using in vivo and culture approaches, we show p57(Kip2) overexpression at E14.5-15.5 elicits(More)
The distribution of the sulfhydryl oxidase QSOX in the rat brain was mapped using immunohistochemistry. QSOX is specifically expressed by neurons throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the brain as well as in the spinal cord. Although a majority of neurons express QSOX, different intensities of labeling were observed depending on the area: the strongest(More)
Sulfhydryl oxidases belonging to the FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6 family were previously reported in rat peripheral organs but they were not detected in brain. In the present study, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and northern blot analysis, we clearly show an ubiquitous expression of the gene in brain; moreover,(More)
Although survival-promoting effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during neurogenesis are well characterized, mitogenic effects remain less well substantiated. Here, we characterize cell cycle regulators and signaling pathways underlying IGF-1 effects on embryonic cortical precursor proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, IGF-1 stimulated(More)
We showed earlier that a specific neuron population of the rat lateral hypothalamus, differing from the codistributed melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, express both dynorphin (DYN) and secretogranin II (SgII) genes. We demonstrated later that this population corresponds in fact to the newly identified orexin/hypocretin (OX/Hcrt) neurons. In the(More)
As a member of the CIP/KIP family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CKIs), p57Kip2 binds tightly to G1 cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes to block cell cycle progression. CKIs play critical roles in regulating the transition from proliferation to differentiation in many tissues, including the nervous system. Conversely, CKI dys-regulation(More)
Rat quiescin/sulphydryl oxidase (rQSOX) introduces disulphide bridges into peptides and proteins with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Its occurrence has been previously highlighted in a wide range of organs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analyses, methods that have provided information(More)
In developing central nervous system, a variety of mechanisms couple cell cycle exit to differentiation during neurogenesis. The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p57Kip2 controls the transition from proliferation to differentiation in many tissues, but roles in developing brain remain uncertain. To characterize possible functions, we defined p57Kip2(More)