Georges Emile Raymond Grau

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To assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and standard measurements in identifying critically ill patients with sepsis, we performed prospective measurements in 78 consecutive patients admitted with acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and suspected infection. We estimated the relevance of the different(More)
Malaria is possibly the most serious infectious disease of humans, infecting 5-10% of the world's population, with 300-600 million clinical cases and more than 2 million deaths annually. Adaptive immune responses in the host limit the clinical impact of infection and provide partial, but incomplete, protection against pathogen replication; however, these(More)
Microparticles (MPs) resulting from vesiculation of platelets and other blood cells have been extensively documented in vitro and have been found in increased numbers in several vascular diseases, but little is known about MPs of endothelial origin. The aim of this study was to analyze morphological, immunological, and functional characteristics of MPs(More)
Malaria still is a major public health problem, partly because the pathogenesis of its major complication, cerebral malaria, remains incompletely understood. Experimental models represent useful tools to better understand the mechanisms of this syndrome. Here, data generated by several models are reviewed both in vivo and in vitro; we propose that some(More)
Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), a lethal hyperacute neurological syndrome associated with high blood levels of tumor necrosis factor, develops in genetically susceptible (CBA/Ca) mice 7 days after infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Injections of neutralizing monoclonal antibody against recombinant murine interferon gamma, not later than 4(More)
Multidrug resistance (MDR), a significant impediment to the successful treatment of cancer clinically, has been attributed to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a plasma membrane multidrug efflux transporter. P-gp maintains sublethal intracellular drug concentrations by virtue of its drug efflux capacity. The cellular regulation of P-gp expression(More)
Serum concentrations of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor/cachectin (TNF), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) were prospectively measured in 70 patients with septic shock to determine their evolution and prognostic values. In a univariate analysis, levels of TNF (P = .002) and IL-1 beta (P =(More)
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. The nature of the pathogenetic processes leading to the cerebral complications is poorly understood. Mouse models of this condition have provided insight into the key events in pathogenesis, including those that occur before clinical symptoms are seen. Some T(More)
The pathogenic importance of L3T4+ T cells in the development of murine cerebral malaria was demonstrated by the following observations. First, in vivo administration of an anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody protected Plasmodium berghei-infected CBA mice from the development of neurologic symptoms and acute death. In contrast, injection with an MAb directed(More)
Intrapulmonary activation of leukocytes and release of cellular mediators and enzymes are involved in the pathophysiology of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To investigate a possible role of local cytokines, we measured bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble inhibitors(More)