George Wetzel

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Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are small membranous tubes of 50-1000 nm diameter observed to connect cells in culture. Transfer of subcellular organelles through TNTs was observed in vitro and in vivo, but the formation and significance of these structures is not well understood. A polydimethylsiloxane biochip-based coculture model was devised to constrain TNT(More)
Under defined conditions, papain removes IgD from cells while leaving IgM, H-2, Ia, Lyb-2, and complement receptor intact. The effect of such treatment with papain on the induction of tolerance in murine splenic B cells was determined in an in vitro system. Treatment of the cells with papain has no effect on subsequent antibody responsiveness presumably(More)
Although space delineation is a well-accepted requirement for biologically controlled biomineralization, the actual location of the mineralizing compartment within marine invertebrates has only recently been determined. We observed that the biomineralization was compartmented within the collar region of the metamorphosing larvae of Hydrodies elegans at its(More)
Characterizing the first event of biological production of calcium carbonate requires a combination of microscopy approaches. First, intracellular pH distribution and calcium ions can be observed using live microscopy over time. This allows identification of the life stage and the tissue with the feature of interest for further electron microscopy studies.(More)
Murine B cells from bone marrow (1) and neonatal spleen (2, 3) are more readily tolerized than splenic B cells from adults. The maturational decrease in susceptibility to tolerance induction is accompanied by the acquisition of a variety of surface molecules including IgD (4), Lyb3 (5), MLS (6), and the C' receptor (7). In addition, mature B cells, in(More)
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