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Although thalidomide (Thal) was initially used to treat multiple myeloma (MM) because of its known antiangiogenic effects, the mechanism of its anti-MM activity is unclear. These studies demonstrate clinical activity of Thal against MM that is refractory to conventional therapy and delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Thal and its potent analogs(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Apremilast is an orally administered phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, currently in phase 2 clinical studies of psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. The inhibitory effects of apremilast on pro-inflammatory responses of human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), polymorphonuclear cells, natural killer (NK)(More)
Apremilast, an oral small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), is in development for chronic inflammatory disorders, and has shown efficacy in psoriasis, psoriatic arthropathies, and Behçet's syndrome. In March 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved apremilast for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. The(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Important mediators of inflammation such as the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its superfamily member fibroblast-associated cell-surface ligand (FasL) have been implicated in apoptosis.(More)
TNF-alpha mediates both protective and detrimental manifestations of the host immune response. Our previous work has shown thalidomide to be a relatively selective inhibitor of TNF-alpha production in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, we have recently reported that thalidomide exerts a costimulatory effect on T cell responses. To develop thalidomide(More)
The antiangiogenic activity of thalidomide (Thal), coupled with an increase in bone marrow angiogenesis in multiple myeloma (MM), provided the rationale for the use of Thal in MM. Previously, the direct anti-MM activity of Thal and its analogues (immunomodulatory drugs, IMiDs) on MM cells was demonstrated, suggesting multiple mechanisms of action. In this(More)
PURPOSE Lenalidomide has significant activity in myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In previous studies, natural killer (NK) cell expansion by lenalidomide was shown to enhance the cytotoxic effect of rituximab. This study assessed the ability of lenalidomide to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity(More)
Increased angiogenesis has recently been recognized in active multiple myeloma (MM). Since vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are two key mediators of angiogenesis, we characterized the production of VEGF, b-FGF and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (a MM growth and survival factor) in MM cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus(More)
Lenalidomide (Revlimid; CC-5013) and pomalidomide (CC-4047) are IMiDs proprietary drugs having immunomodulatory properties that have both shown activity in cancer clinical trials; lenalidomide is approved in the United States for a subset of MDS patients and for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma when used in combination with dexamethasone. These(More)
Clinical studies involving patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or multiple myeloma have shown the efficacy of lenalidomide by reducing and often eliminating malignant cells while restoring the bone marrow function. To better understand these clinical observations, we investigated and compared the effects of lenalidomide and a structurally related(More)