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Mortality rates and survival curves were estimated for a sample of opioid addicts who had survived to an initial six-year follow-up interview. A total of 52 of the 555 addicts died between the six-year and 12-year follow-up interviews, which corresponds to an average of 13.8 deaths/1,000 person years. This rate is 6.9 times greater than the general(More)
Although one-third of clients enrolled in methadone treatment in the United States are female, few studies have looked at gender differences at admission and follow-up. Using interview data from 435 clients (31% female) collected at admission and approximately 1 year after discharge, females were found to have more dysfunctional families of origin and(More)
A model to explain treatment retention in terms of process components--therapeutic involvement and session attributes for the 1st month--and patient background factors were tested in long-term residential (LTR), outpatient drug free (ODF), and outpatient methadone (OMT) treatments. The data was collected in the national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies(More)
HIV risks involving injection and sex behaviors were analyzed in relation to cocaine use and gender among 487 opiate-dependent clients in methadone treatment. Those who also used cocaine were at greater risk than non-cocaine users on HIV risky injection variables. Females were at more risk than males on the HIV risky sex behaviors involving unprotected sex(More)
Mortality rates were examined among 3,324 Black and White daily opioid drug users for a four-year period following treatment in community-based agencies located across the United States. A total of 179 of these addicts died during this follow-up period, yielding a death rate of 15.2 per 1,000 person-years at risk. When adjusted for age, addict death rates(More)
BACKGROUND Longer retention has been the most consistent predictor of favorable drug abuse treatment outcomes, but key therapeutic and patient engagement indicators of treatment process need to be more clearly established. METHODS An integrative model representing treatment dynamics was tested for explaining long-term program retention. It was based on a(More)
This study focused on the relationship between organizational functioning factors measured in a staff survey using the Texas Christian University (TCU) Organizational Readiness for Change assessment and client-level engagement measured by the TCU Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment in drug treatment programs. The sample consisted of 531 clinical and(More)
HIV risk behavior was examined in relation to gender and cocaine use among a sample of 327 daily opioid users in methadone maintenance treatment. Women and cocaine users tended to be at higher risk than men and non-users prior to treatment entry. Significant reductions in both injection and sex-related risks occurred from intake to months 3 and 6 of(More)
Study objectives were to examine HIV risk behaviors 12 months following methadone maintenance (MM) treatment termination, and to assess the effects of treatment tenure, cocaine use, and gender on posttreatment HIV risk. Injection and sex risk behaviors were measured at treatment entry and 12 months after leaving treatment among 435 injection opioid users.(More)
Patient attributions for their own long-term recovery were obtained in a 5-year followup of 432 admissions to 18 outpatient methadone treatment programs. Subjects were classified into two groups - recovering and non-recovering-strictly defined and based on both biological and self-report measures of no opioid or cocaine use, less than daily use of alcohol,(More)