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BACKGROUND The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and its inhibitor-protein CD59. METHODS Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in young male(More)
Following focal cerebral ischemia ("stroke") a complex and dynamic interaction of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons determines the extent of the ensuing lesion. Traditionally, the focus has been on mechanisms of damage, while recently it has become clear that endogenous mechanisms of protection are equally important for the final outcome. Glial(More)
SV129 or C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 5 days, 1 h every day, 100% O(2) at 3 atm absolute). One day after the 5th HBO session focal cerebral ischemia was induced. In SV129 mice, HBO induced tolerance against permanent focal cerebral ischemia (n=42, mean infarct volume reduction 27%, P=0.001), but not against transient (30 or 60(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a posttranscriptionally regulated transcription factor, controlling several hypoxia-inducible genes. Here we show a rapid and transient increase of HIF-1 DNA binding activity in a dose dependent manner in primary cortical neurons of rats exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) for 30, 60, 90, or 120 min. A reduced(More)
We applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to study differentially expressed genes in mouse brain 14 hr after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Analysis of >60,000 transcripts revealed 83 upregulated and 94 downregulated transcripts (more than or equal to eightfold). Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing SAGE in duplicate on the(More)
Activation of the inflammatory response is a crucial event in the adverse outcome of cerebral ischemia, which is promoted by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta. Although caspase-1 is necessary for IL-1beta processing, the 'upstream' signaling pathways were, until recently, essentially unknown. Fortunately, the inflammasome, a(More)
We report a case of multiple brain abscesses (BAs) in a 67-year-old man with symptoms of progredient disorientation and amnestic aphasia. Onset of symptoms occurred one week after surgical treatment of a perianal abscess. No other source of infection was identified and the abscesses were limited to the brain. The immune status was normal but a patent(More)