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A significant up-regulation of Toll-like-receptor (TLR) mRNAs between 3 and 48 h reperfusion time after induction of transient focal cerebral ischemia for 1h was revealed by applying global gene expression profiling in postischemic mouse brains. Compared to TLR4 and TLR9, TLR2 proved to be the most significantly up-regulated TLR in the ipsilateral brain(More)
The cytosolic cAMP activates in eukaryotic cells several isoforms of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKAs) involved in signal transduction. The effects of individual PKA isoforms are determined by their cellular localisation, specified through binding to distinct A Kinase Anchor Proteins (AKAPs). A new member of the AKAP family, a membrane-anchored 903 amino(More)
Sublethal ischemia leads to increased tolerance against subsequent prolonged cerebral ischemia in vivo. In the present study we modeled preconditioning mechanisms in a neuronal-enriched culture. Damage was significantly reduced (up to 72%) with 1.5 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation 48-72 h before 3 h oxygen-glucose deprivation. Tolerance was also elicited by(More)
Reduced infarct volume in TLR2-knockout mice compared with C57Bl/6 wild-type mice has recently been shown in experimental stroke and confirmed in this study. We now also show a significant decrease of CD11b-positive cell counts and decreased neuronal death in the ischemic hemispheres of TLR2-deficient mice compared with C57Bl/6wt mice 2 days after transient(More)
Sirtuin-2 (Sirt2) is a member of the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase family. Various members of the sirtuin class have been found to be involved in processes related to longevity, regulation of inflammation, and neuroprotection. Induction of Sirt2 mRNA was found in the whole hemisphere after experimental stroke in a recent screening approach. Moreover,(More)
The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and its inhibitor-protein CD59. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in young male and female CD59a(More)
Following focal cerebral ischemia ("stroke") a complex and dynamic interaction of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons determines the extent of the ensuing lesion. Traditionally, the focus has been on mechanisms of damage, while recently it has become clear that endogenous mechanisms of protection are equally important for the final outcome. Glial(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. Pneumococci can be divided into >90 serotypes that show differences in the pathogenicity and invasiveness. We tested the hypotheses that the innate immune inflammasome pathway is involved in fighting pneumococcal pneumonia and that some invasive pneumococcal types are not(More)
The authors show that the inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase, 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NPA), which in high doses and with chronic administration is a neurotoxin, can induce profound tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia in the rat when administered in a single dose (20 mg/kg) 3 days before ischemia. Infarcts were approximately 70% and 35% smaller in(More)
We applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to study differentially expressed genes in mouse brain 14 hr after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Analysis of >60,000 transcripts revealed 83 upregulated and 94 downregulated transcripts (more than or equal to eightfold). Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing SAGE in duplicate on the(More)