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A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial cells, designated gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM)(More)
Hydrophobins self assemble into amphipathic films at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces. These proteins are involved in a broad range of processes in fungal development. We have studied the conformational changes that accompany the self-assembly of the hydrophobin SC3 with polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total(More)
During a cycle of mannitol transport and phosphorylation, the phosphoryl group originating on P-enolpyruvate is transferred, consecutively, to two sites on the Escherichia coli mannitol-specific carrier (EIIMtl) before being placed on mannitol [Pas et al. (1988) Biochemistry (in press)]. The peptides constituting the two EIIMtl phosphorylation sites have(More)
Chemical modification procedures have been used to study the interaction of tricyclic and non-tricyclic 5HT-reuptake inhibitors with the [3H]imipramine binding site (IBS). N-Ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) induced a pronounced loss in [3H]imipramine binding due to a reduction in Bmax. Preincubation with reuptake inhibitors and subsequent(More)
Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins that self-assemble at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic membranes that, in the case of Class I hydrophobins, can be disassembled only by treatment with agents like pure trifluoroacetic acid. Here we characterize, by spectroscopic techniques, the structural changes that occur upon assembly at an(More)
Mucosal immunization with subunit vaccines requires new types of antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for optimal immune responses. We have developed a non-living and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial delivery particle (GEM) that has built-in adjuvant activity and a high loading capacity for externally added heterologous antigens that are(More)
A mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS) was identified in Bacillus stearothermophilus by in vitro complementation with Escherichia coli EI, HPr, and IIA(Mtl). Degenerate primers based on regions of high amino acid similarity in the E. coli and Staphylococcus carnosus EII(Mt1) were used to develop a digoxigenin-labeled probe by PCR. Using this probe, we(More)
The size of enzyme IImtl solubilized in the active state has been determined by size-exclusion chromatography under conditions that favor the association of the enzyme. The contribution of the detergent bound to the enzyme was determined by solubilizing the enzyme and running the TSK250 column in a number of detergents with decreasing micellar sizes. The(More)
The mannitol-specific transport protein in Escherichia coli, EIImtl, consists of three structural and functional domains: a hydrophilic EIII-like domain (the A domain); a hydrophobic transmembrane domain (the C domain); and a second hydrophilic domain (the B domain) which connects the A and C domains together. The A domain contains the first phosphorylation(More)