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Some researchers have recently questioned the validity of associations between birth weight and health in later life. They argue that these associations might be due in part to inappropriate statistical adjustment for variables on the causal pathway (such as current body size), which creates an artifactual statistical effect known as the "reversal paradox."(More)
Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses(More)
BACKGROUND There is substantial evidence that health and health-care experiences vary along ethnic lines and the need to understand and tackle ethnic health inequalities has repeatedly been highlighted. Research into ethnicity and health raises ethical, theoretical and methodological issues and, as the volume of research in this area grows, so too do(More)
BACKGROUND To explore the relationship between work, retirement and physical activity. METHODS Cross-sectional analyses of data from self-completed questionnaires by 6224 civil servants aged 45-69 years participating in phase 5 of the Whitehall II longitudinal study. RESULTS There appeared to be a dose-response relationship between hours worked and the(More)
The effect of short photoperiod and cold on metabolism and thermoregulation was investigated in pouched mice (Saccostomus campestris: Cricetidae) from three localities in southern Africa which experience contrasting climatic conditions. Mice were initially acclimated to long photoperiod (14L: 10D) at 25°C, followed first by a decline in photoperiod (to 10L:(More)
Kanazawa's (2006) national- and individual-level analyses seem to support his hypothesis that: IQ scores are better predictors of health than wealth or inequality, except in 'evolutionarily familiar' sub-Saharan Africa which offers limited selection for intelligence (British Journal of Health Psychology 11: 623-42). However, the present paper exposes the(More)
As the search for human genetic variation has become a priority for biomedical science, debates have resurfaced about the use of race and ethnicity as scientific classifications. In this paper we consider the relationship between race, ethnicity and genetics, using insights from science and technology studies (STS) about processes of classification and(More)
OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Functional data(More)
The four models proposed for exploring the foetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis use the product term between size at birth and current size to determine the relative importance of pre- and post-natal growth on disease in later life. This is a common approach for testing the interaction between an exposure (in this instance size at birth) and an(More)