George Spratto

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Since cocaine or diazepam are used clinically and/or abused concomitantly with narcotics, this study was designed to determine if morphine-dependent, morphine-withdrawn, or acute morphine rats exhibit an altered core body temperature at 24 or 4 degrees C to either cocaine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg i.p.) or diazepam (2 or 4 mg/kg i.p.). At 24 degrees C, each dose(More)
Fed and 18-h fasted rats were given acute doses of either saline or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman) 40, 60, or 80 micrograms/kg. After 30 min plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine and the hypothalamus was isolated and assayed for(More)
The effects of repeated administration of soman on plasma glucose levels, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in erythrocytes and hypothalamus, and plasma levels of corticosterone, glucagon, insulin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were studied in male rats. Rats were given soman subcutaneously (sc), either 30 micrograms/kg every 24 hr for 5 or 12 days or(More)
The effects of acute doses of soman (40, 60, or 80 micrograms/kg sc) in rats were evaluated for toxic symptoms as well as for changes in plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, corticosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. The relationship between changes in these levels and depressed acetylcholinesterase activity in the hypothalamus was determined.(More)
The importance of age as an experimental variable in the evaluation of the analgesic, thermic, and respiratory depressant effects to morphine was studied in male rats one and one-half, six, and ten months of age. Significant age-related responses were observed in both the analgesic and thermic responses to morphine. Also, following a dose of 30 mg/kg(More)
A series of agents were tested for their ability to interact with the analgetic actions of either d-amphetamine (d-AMP) or l-amphetamine (l-AMP), or morphine in rats using the hot plate procedure. The analgetic action of l-AMP was potentiated by morphine and slightly antagonized by naloxone; it was antagonized by clonidine, alpha-MT, yohimbine, fluoxetine(More)
Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging(More)