George Sirinakis

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Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins drive membrane fusion by assembling into a four-helix bundle in a zippering process. Here, we used optical tweezers to observe in a cell-free reconstitution experiment in real time a long-sought SNARE assembly intermediate in which only the membrane-distal amino-terminal(More)
Thank you for submitting your manuscript for consideration by the EMBO Journal. It has now been seen by three referees whose comments are shown below. As you will see the referees are in general positive regarding the study although several issues need to be addressed before we proceed further with the manuscript. Should you be able to address these(More)
ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition and reconfigure nucleosomes. Despite their diverse functions, all remodellers share highly conserved ATPase domains, many shown to translocate DNA. Understanding remodelling requires biophysical knowledge of the DNA translocation process: how the ATPase moves DNA(More)
The RSC chromatin remodeler slides and ejects nucleosomes, utilizing a catalytic subunit (Sth1) with DNA translocation activity, which can pump DNA around the nucleosome. A central question is whether and how DNA translocation is regulated to achieve sliding versus ejection. Here, we report the regulation of DNA translocation efficiency by two domains(More)
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy allows observations of subcellular dynamics at the nanoscale. Applications have, however, been severely limited by the lack of a versatile STED-compatible two-colour labelling strategy for intracellular targets in living cells. Here we demonstrate a universal labelling method based on the organic,(More)
The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two(More)
Coiled coils are one of the most abundant protein structural motifs and widely mediate protein interactions and force transduction or sensation. They are thus model systems for protein engineering and folding studies, particularly the GCN4 coiled coil. Major single-molecule methods have also been applied to this protein and revealed its folding kinetics at(More)
Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence are two major single-molecule approaches. Their combination has begun to show greater capability to study more complex systems than either method alone, but met many fundamental and technical challenges. We built an instrument that combines base-pair resolution dual-trap optical tweezers with single-molecule(More)
Fluorescence nanoscopy, or super-resolution microscopy, has become an important tool in cell biological research. However, because of its usually inferior resolution in the depth direction (50-80 nm) and rapidly deteriorating resolution in thick samples, its practical biological application has been effectively limited to two dimensions and thin samples.(More)
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes (remodelers) use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to regulate chromatin structures by repositioning and reconfiguring nucleosomes. Ensemble experiments have suggested that remodeler ATPases are DNA translocases, molecular motors capable of processively moving along DNA. This concept of DNA translocation has become a(More)