George Shorten

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Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the founding member of the neurotrophins family of proteins. It was discovered more than half a century ago through its ability to promote sensory and sympathetic neuronal survival and axonal growth during the development of the peripheral nervous system, and is the paradigmatic target-derived neurotrophic factor on which the(More)
The authors describe a new approach towards assessing skills of medical trainees. Based on experiences from previous projects with (i) applying virtual environments for medical training and (ii) competence assessment and personalisation in technology enhanced learning environments, a system for personalised medical training with virtual environments is(More)
Traditional approaches of assessment in the medical domain are insufficient for evaluating trainees' technical skills. Currently, many European medical training bodies are attempting to introduce competence-based training programmes for technical skills as well as other domains (e.g., communication, professional behaviour, clinical cognition). These efforts(More)
The speeds of onset of pancuronium, atracurium and vecuronium are increased by prior administration of magnesium sulphate. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, clinical study was performed to examine the effects of prior i.v. administration of magnesium sulphate 60 mg kg-1 on the neuromuscular blocking effects of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1(More)
The authors present an approach for implementing a system for the assessment of medical competences using a haptic simulation device. Based on Competence based Knowledge Space Theory (CbKST), information on the learners' competences is gathered from different sources (test questions, data from the simulator, and supervising experts' assessments). The(More)
If VR-based medical training and assessment is to improve patient care and safety (i.e. a genuine health gain), it has to be based on clinically relevant measurement of performance. Metrics on errors are particularly useful for capturing and correcting undesired behaviors before they occur in the operating room. However, translating clinically relevant(More)
This paper describes the development of a technology architecture that not only supports the technical performance assessment of a medical simulator but also facilitates a validated competence based assessment system in one selected anaesthetic procedure i.e. spinal anaesthesia. Based on extensive mapping of the competencies required for the performance of(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts' perceptions(More)
BACKGROUND Peripheral nerve blocks are effective in treating acute pain, thereby minimizing the requirement for opiate analgesics. Fractured neck of femur (FNF) is a common, painful injury. The provision of effective analgesia to this cohort is challenging but an important determinant of their functional outcome. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of(More)
A method is presented for the automatic determination of a patient's level of sedation from the EEG. Six bipolar channels of EEG recorded from 12 adult patients sedated with low-dose propofol (2, 6-disopropylphenol) were used to develop a linear discriminant based system for depth of sedation monitoring using a number of quantitative EEG measures. A cross(More)