George S. Mourad

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Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) is an essential enzyme for many organisms as it catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoleucine, and leucine. The enzyme is under allosteric control by these amino acids. It is also inhibited by several classes of herbicides, such as the sulfonylureas, imidazolinones and(More)
Locus At5g03555 encodes a nucleobase cation symporter 1 (AtNCS1) in the Arabidopsis genome. Arabidopsis insertion mutants, AtNcs1-1 and AtNcs1-3, were used for in planta toxic nucleobase analog growth studies and radio-labeled nucleobase uptake assays to characterize solute transport specificities. These results correlate with similar growth and uptake(More)
We fused four mutant omr1 alleles, encoding feedback-insensitive forms of Arabidopsis thaliana biosynthetic threonine dehydratase/deaminase (TD), to the CaMV 35S promoter and transformed these constructs into A. thaliana Columbia wild type plants. The mutant TD forms consisted of our previously isolated double mutant, omr1-1, and three new site-directed(More)
In plants, nucleobase biochemistry is highly compartmented relying upon a well-regulated and selective membrane transport system. In Arabidopsis two proteins, AtAzg1 and AtAzg2, show substantial amino acid sequence similarity to the adenine-guanine-hypoxanthine transporter AzgA of Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of single and double mutant lines harboring(More)
The single cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of importing purines as nitrogen sources. An analysis of the annotated C. reinhardtii genome reveals at least three distinct gene families encoding for known nucleobase transporters. In this study the solute transport and binding properties for the lone C. reinhardtii nucleobase cation symporter 1(More)
Four classes of herbicides are known to inhibit plant acetolactate synthase (ALS). In Arabidopsis, ALS is encoded by a single gene, CSR1. The dominant csr1-1 allele encodes an ALS resistant to chlorsulfuron and triazolopyrimidine sulfonamide while the dominant csr1-2 allele encodes an ALS resistant to imazapyr and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoate. The molecular(More)
We have isolated a triazolopyrimidine-resistant mutant csrl-2, of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Here, we compare csrl-2 with the previously isolated mutants csrl and csr1-1, and with wild-type Arabidopsis for responses to members of four classes of herbicides, namely, sulfonylureas, triazolopyrimidines, imidazolinones, and pyrimidyl-oxy-benzoates. Two(More)
A comparison is made of the kinetic characteristics of acetolactate synthase (EC in extracts from Columbia wild type and four near-isogenic, herbicide-resistant mutants of Arobidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The mutants used were the chlorsulfuron-resistant GH50 (csr1-1), the imazapyr-resistant GH90 (csr1-2), the triazolopyrimidine-resistant Tzp5(More)
The nuclear recessive gene, chm1, of Arabidopsis thaliana is a imitator that induces a variety of plastid alterations giving rise to mixed cells and variegated leaves. The variegation is maternally transmitted but chm1 is transmitted in a Mendelian fashion (Rédei 1973; Rédei and Plurad 1973). In order to characterize the different types of plastid(More)
A valine-resistant mutant line, VAL-2, ofArabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. was identified by screening M 2 populations of ethylmethane-sulfonate-mutagenized seeds. The resistance was found to be due to a single, dominant, nuclear gene mutation. Assay of acetolactate synthase (ALS) indicated that the valine resistance in this mutant is caused by decreased(More)