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Antigen-specific T cell activation requires the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) with antigen as well as the engagement of appropriate costimulatory molecules. The most extensively characterized pathway of costimulation has been that involving the interaction of CD28 and CTLA4 on the T cell with B7 (now termed B7-1) on antigen presenting cells.(More)
B7 delivers a costimulatory signal through CD28, resulting in interleukin-2 secretion and T cell proliferation. Blockade of this pathway results in T cell anergy. The in vivo role of B7 was evaluated with B7-deficient mice. These mice had a 70 percent decrease in costimulation of the response to alloantigen. Despite lacking B7 expression, activated B cells(More)
Stimulation of T cell proliferation generally requires two signals: The first signal is provided by the T cell receptor binding to antigen, and the second signal or costimulus is provided by a different receptor-ligand interaction. In mouse and human, the CD28-B7 interaction has been identified as a source of costimulatory signals. We have identified a cell(More)
The B7-1 molecule, expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC), provides a crucial costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Recent studies demonstrate the existence of alternative, non-B7-1 CTLA4 counter-receptors in mice and humans. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and demonstrate costimulatory function of the murine B7-2 (mB7-2) gene. Murine(More)
Approximately 15% of patients with bronchial asthma are unable to sense marked changes in airway obstruction. We have investigated the hypothesis that inability to sense changes in the severity of bronchial asthma varies with insensitivity to emotional arousal, which in turn is associated with repressive defense styles. Nine asthmatic patients were studied(More)
The average distance covered when attempting to hurry on the level for 12 min (12 min walking distance) is linearly correlated to forced expiratory volume in 1 s in healthy middle-aged individuals and patients with chronic airflow obstruction. Patients with current or past asthma, with or without chronic bronchitis and emphysema, walk more slowly than those(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have identified myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) as cooperating oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and suggested a contribution to the aggressive nature of at least some subtypes of AML, raising the possibility that MEF2C could serve as marker of poor-risk AML and, therefore, have prognostic significance. METHODS To test(More)
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO), an immunoconjugate between an anti-CD33 antibody and a calicheamicin-γ(1) derivative, induces remissions and improves survival in a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). As the mechanisms underlying GO and calicheamicin-γ(1) resistance are incompletely understood, we herein used flow cytometry-based single cell(More)
Preclinical and emerging clinical studies demonstrate that bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE) antibody constructs can potently lyse targeted tumor cells, but the determinants for their activity remain incompletely understood. Using human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines engineered to overexpress individual T-cell ligands, we found that expression of(More)