George S. Eisenbarth

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We report that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (PTPN22) encoding the lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a suppressor of T-cell activation, is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The variants encoded by the two alleles, 1858C and 1858T, differ in a crucial amino acid residue involved in association of LYP with the(More)
Fusion of spleen cells from a mouse immunized with chicken embryo retina cells with clonal mouse myeloma cells yielded a lymphocyte hybrid cell line that produced antibody that bound to neural tissue such as retina, brain, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia but not to other tissues tested. The antigen was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from progressive loss of pancreatic islet mass through autoimmunity targeted at a diverse, yet limited, series of molecules that are expressed in the pancreatic beta cell. Identification of these molecular targets provides insight into the pathogenic process, diagnostic assays, and potential therapeutic agents. Autoantigen(More)
The aim of this workshop was to assess the ability of individual autoantibody (ab) assays and their use in combination to discriminate between type 1 diabetic and control sera. Coded aliquots of sera were measured in a total of 119 assays by 49 participating laboratories in 17 countries. The sera were from 51 patients with new onset type 1 diabetes and 101(More)
BACKGROUND Islet transplantation offers the potential to improve glycemic control in a subgroup of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who are disabled by refractory hypoglycemia. We conducted an international, multicenter trial to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of islet transplantation with the use of a single common protocol (the Edmonton(More)
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder afflicting millions of people worldwide. Once diagnosed, patients require lifelong insulin treatment and can experience numerous disease-associated complications. The last decade has seen tremendous advances in elucidating the causes and treatment of the disease based on extensive research both in rodent models of(More)
As our knowledge of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes increases, so does our appreciation for the pathogenic complexity of this disease and the challenges associated with its treatment. Many new concepts about the pathogenesis of this disorder have arisen. The role of genetics versus environment in disease formation has been questioned, and the basis on(More)
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies revealed a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In an attempt to confirm some of these candidate associations, we genotyped 2046 Caucasian patients and 2417 normal controls from the United States for SNPs in five genomic regions. While no evidence was(More)
Islet cell antibodies (ICAs) are predictive of type I diabetes in first-degree relatives, but this immunohistochemical assay has proven difficult to standardize. As an alternative, we assessed the use of radioassays for antibodies against three molecularly characterized islet autoantigens, including ICA512bdc (amino acid residues 256-979 of the IA-2(More)
Type 1A diabetes is an autoimmune disease with genetic and environmental factors contributing to its etiology. Twin studies, family studies, and animal models have helped to elucidate the genetics of autoimmune diabetes. Most of the genetic susceptibility is accounted for by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. The most-common susceptibility haplotypes(More)