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Oscillations in RR interval between 0.02 and 1.00 cycles per second (Hz) have been related to the action of the autonomic nervous system. Respiration has been shown to influence RR interval at normal breathing frequencies between approximately 0.16 and 0.5 Hz in children and adults--a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this study we(More)
Contact sensors to monitor fetal heart, breathing, and movement sounds with increased sensitivity and bandwidth are under development. To understand the inherent acoustical properties of the maternal abdomen and its interaction with these sensors, the driving-point impedance Z(j omega) was measured in nine women during their last trimester of pregnancy. An(More)
A parametric phase delay estimation technique is used to determine the spatial and inhaled gas composition dependencies of sound propagation time through an intact human lung at frequencies of 150-1200 Hz. Noise transmission measurements from the mouth to the extrathoracic trachea and six sites on the posterior chest wall are performed in 11 healthy adult(More)
A theoretical model of sound transmission from within the respiratory tract to the chest wall due to the motion of the walls of the large airways was developed. The vocal tract, trachea, and the first five bronchial generations are represented over the frequency range from 100 to 600 Hz by an equivalent acoustic circuit. This circuit allows the estimation(More)
Sonic noise transmission from the mouth to six sites on the posterior chest wall is measured in 11 healthy adult male subjects at resting lung volume. The measurement sites are over the upper, middle and lower lung fields and are symmetric about the spine. The ratios of transmitted sound power to analogous sites over the right (R) and left (L) lung fields(More)
Breath sounds heard with a stethoscope over homologous sites of both lungs in healthy subjects are presumed to have similar characteristics. Passively transmitted sounds introduced at the mouth, however, are known to lateralise, with right-over-left dominance in power at the anterior upper chest. Both spontaneous breath sounds and passively transmitted(More)
The frequency-dependent propagation time, or phase delay tau (f), of sonic noise transmission from the trachea to the chest wall was estimated over the 100-600 Hz frequency range using a phase estimation technique from measurements performed on eight healthy subjects. Since tau (f) can be greater than one period of the input signal at frequencies greater(More)
Several clinical and ambulatory settings necessitate respiratory monitoring without a mouthpiece or facemask. Several studies have demonstrated the utility of breathing sound measurements performed on the chest or neck to detect airflow. However, there are limitations to skin surface measurements, including susceptibility to external noise and transducer(More)