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Oscillations in RR interval between 0.02 and 1.00 cycles per second (Hz) have been related to the action of the autonomic nervous system. Respiration has been shown to influence RR interval at normal breathing frequencies between approximately 0.16 and 0.5 Hz in children and adults--a phenomenon known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In this study we(More)
Auscultation of lung sounds in patient transport vehicles such as an ambulance or aircraft is unachievable because of high ambient noise levels. Aircraft noise levels of 90-100 dB SPL are common, while lung sounds have been measured in the 22-30 dB SPL range in free space and 65-70 dB SPL within a stethoscope coupler. Also, the bandwidth of lung sounds and(More)
Thirteen anesthetized canine subjects (17-29 kg) were used to demonstrate that mild cervical left vagal stimulation could control ventricular rate effectively during atrial fibrillation (AF). Two studies are presented. The first study used six subjects to demonstrate the inverse relationship between (manually applied) left vagal stimulation and ventricular(More)
Contact sensors to monitor fetal heart, breathing, and movement sounds with increased sensitivity and bandwidth are under development. To understand the inherent acoustical properties of the maternal abdomen and its interaction with these sensors, the driving-point impedance Z(j omega) was measured in nine women during their last trimester of pregnancy. An(More)
The spectra of sounds recorded over the trachea of adults typically reveal peaks near 700 and 1500 Hz. We assessed the anatomical determinants of these peaks and the conditions contributing to their presence. We studied five adult subjects with normal lung function, measuring sounds at the suprasternal notch and on the right cheek. The subjects breathed at(More)
A theoretical model of sound transmission from within the respiratory tract to the chest wall due to the motion of the walls of the large airways was developed. The vocal tract, trachea, and the first five bronchial generations are represented over the frequency range from 100 to 600 Hz by an equivalent acoustic circuit. This circuit allows the estimation(More)
A parametric phase delay estimation technique is used to determine the spatial and inhaled gas composition dependencies of sound propagation time through an intact human lung at frequencies of 150–1200 Hz. Noise transmission measurements from the mouth to the extrathoracic trachea and six sites on the posterior chest wall are performed in 11 healthy adult(More)
Sensors used for lung sound research are generally designed by the investigators or adapted from devices used in related fields. Their relative characteristics have never been defined. We employed an artificial chest wall with a viscoelastic surface and a white noise signal generator as a stable source of sound to compare the frequency response and pulse(More)