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Recently, macrophages have been characterized as having an M1 or M2 phenotype based on receptor expression, cytokine and effector molecule production, and function. The effects of macrophage phenotype upon tissue remodeling following the implantation of a biomaterial are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a(More)
PURPOSE The effect of quantified resistance and high impact exercise training on bone mass as modified by age and oral contraceptive (OCont) use in young women was studied. METHODS Women were categorized by age (18-23 vs 24-31 yr) and OCont use, and were then randomized into either three sessions of resistance exercise plus 60 min.wk-1 of jumping rope or(More)
Achievement of maximal calcium retention during adolescence may influence the magnitude of peak bone mass and subsequently lower the risk of osteoporosis. Calcium retention is generally considered to reach a plateau at a certain calcium intake. To test this hypothesis, calcium balance was measured in 35 females with a mean (+/-SD) age of 12.7 +/- 1.2 y(More)
BACKGROUND Previous results suggested that increased intake of dairy calcium is associated with reduced weight and fat mass. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term increases in consumption of dairy calcium alter body weight and fat mass in young, healthy women. DESIGN We used a randomized, 1-y intervention for dairy(More)
Blacks develop a higher peak bone mass than whites which is associated with a reduced risk for bone fracture. The physiological basis for the difference in bone mass was investigated by metabolic balance and calcium kinetic studies in adolescent black and white girls. The hypothesis that the greater peak bone mass in blacks compared with whites is due to(More)
Differences in bone among racial/ethnic groups may be explained by differences in body size and shape. Previous studies have not completely explained differences among white, Asian, and Hispanic groups during growth. To determine racial/ethnic differences and predictors of bone mass in early pubertal girls, we measured bone mineral content (BMC) in white,(More)
Urinary excretion of bone labels can be used to monitor bone resorption. Here we investigate the effects of dosing frequency on label incorporation of various sites when bone turnover was perturbed by ovariectomy. We compared tritiated tetracycline (3H-TC) and 45Ca in two studies. Nine-month-old rats were given single or multiple injections of 3H-TC and(More)
INTRODUCTION Reduction of ovarian estrogen secretion at menopause increases net bone resorption and leads to bone loss. Isoflavones have been reported to protect bone from estrogen deficiency, but their modest effects on bone resorption have been difficult to measure with traditional analytical methods. METHODS In this randomized-order, crossover, blinded(More)
Meta-analyses of randomized controlled intervention trials were conducted to assess the effects of vitamin A, iron, and multimicronutrient interventions on the growth of children < 18 y old. A PubMed database search and other methods identified 14 vitamin A, 21 iron, and 5 multimicronutrient intervention studies that met the design criteria. Weighted mean(More)
BACKGROUND Increased dietary calcium is associated with changes in body composition. One proposed mechanism is that dietary calcium increases fat oxidation, potentially via regulation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the study were to determine whether acute or chronic increased dairy calcium intakes alter(More)