George Olsen

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There is great concern about the health effects of cocaine use during pregnancy. Cocaine alters maternal physiology and crosses the placenta to interact with fetal tissues including the brain. Neurotoxicity, defined as structural and/or functional changes which result in a neurobehavioral deficit, is not unequivocally documented in the human. It is(More)
Can you achieve usable designs without a usability process, without the involvement of a usability professional? Some researchers say sure, it happens all the time. But how? According to George Olsen, those who achieve this are very good designers who bring a breadth of knowledge to their work? including user focus and sensitivity. It's usability(More)
Only three animal studies have been published on the consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure for neonatal ventilation. The one in guinea pigs examines the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide inhalation and two in rabbits consider the response to hypoxia. Cocaine exposure during intrauterine development causes modest and reversible increases in room air(More)
Recent reports indicate that cocaine metabolites have biologic activity and could be toxic. To explore this possibility, two studies were initiated. The first study aimed to define the distribution of cocaine species by quantifying levels of cocaine and its metabolites norcocaine, benzoylecgonine, and benzoylnorecgonine in newborn cord blood and meconium.(More)
This study uses a neonatal guinea pig model to compare the effects of in utero methadone or morphine exposure upon breathing control. We hypothesize that in utero methadone exposure will result in similar respiratory disturbances to those seen in morphine exposed neonates, but that the onset will be slower and the duration longer, due to methadone's longer(More)
The mu opioid receptor (MOR) has been characterized in the mouse and rat. The guinea pig has several advantages as a model for in utero exposure to morphine; the placental structure is similar to the human; and the guinea pig metabolizes morphine to its active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide, at similar rates as humans. Guinea pig MOR cDNA was sequenced.(More)
The major side effect of morphine and its active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), is respiratory depression, which is mediated by mu opioid receptors in the medulla and pons. Although the effect of morphine on coupling between mu opioid receptors and G proteins has been studied, the effect of M6G on this coupling has not. Therefore, stimulation of(More)
Narcotic analgesics act acutely upon opioid receptors in the brainstem to depress respiration in neonates, whereas withdrawal from chronic in utero exposure to morphine is associated with hyperventilation in the newborn. Because of the association between breathing and exposure to exogenous opioids, opioid-stimulated(More)
Opioid receptor binding of morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide (M6G), morphine and [3H][D-Ala2,N-methylPhe4-Glyol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) were determined in neonatal guinea pigs. Pontomedullary membranes specifically bound [3H]DAMGO, which was displaced by M6G and morphine. The KI for M6G and morphine were 15.1 nM and 5.0 nM, respectively, and did not change between(More)
Electrooculographic recordings during left and right conjugate lateral gaze fixation from 10 degrees to 50 degrees were made in 29 patients being treated with phenytoin. At the time of electrooculographic recordings, venous blood samples were drawn for analysis of total and free phenytoin plasma concentrations. Rhythmic horizontal nystagmus occurred in 7(More)