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We introduce a novel statistical approach that quantifies, for the first time, the amount of colocalization of two fluorescent-labeled proteins in an image automatically, removing the bias of visual interpretation. This is done by estimating simultaneously the maximum threshold of intensity for each color below which pixels do not show any statistical(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses1, 2. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus3–5. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular(More)
The HIV-1 virion-associated accessory protein Vpr affects both viral replication and cellular transcription, proliferation, and differentiation. We report that Vpr enhances the activity of glucocorticoids in lymphoid and muscle-derived cell lines by interacting directly with the glucocorticoid receptor and general transcription factors, acting as a(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals(More)
Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for uncovering gene function. We have established a general method to efficiently produce reversible and inducible gene knockout and rescue in mice. In this system, which we named iKO, the target gene can be turned on and off at will by treating the mice with doxycycline. This(More)
HIV sequence diversity and potential decoy epitopes are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. A DNA vaccine candidate comprising of highly conserved p24(gag) elements (CE) induced robust immunity in all 10 vaccinated macaques, whereas full-length gag DNA vaccination elicited responses to these conserved elements in only 5 of 11 animals,(More)
Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag) region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i) include(More)
Studies of retroviral mRNA export identified two distinct RNA export elements utilizing conserved eukaryotic mRNA export mechanism(s), namely the Constitutive Transport Element (CTE) and the RNA Transport Element (RTE). Although RTE and CTE are potent in nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport and expression, neither element is as powerful as the Rev-RRE(More)
The human SPEN family proteins SHARP, RBM15/OTT1, and RBM15B/OTT3 share the structural domain architecture but show distinct functional properties. Here, we examined the function of OTT3 and compared it with its paralogues RBM15 and SHARP. We found that OTT3, like RBM15, has post-transcriptional regulatory activity, whereas SHARP does not, supporting a(More)
The conserved mRNA export receptor NXF1 (Mex67 in yeast) assembles with messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNP) in the nucleus and guides them through the nuclear pore complex into the cytoplasm. The DEAD family RNA helicase Dbp5 is essential for nuclear export of mRNA and is thought to dissociate Mex67 from mRNP upon translocation, thereby generating(More)