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We introduce a novel statistical approach that quantifies, for the first time, the amount of colocalization of two fluorescent-labeled proteins in an image automatically, removing the bias of visual interpretation. This is done by estimating simultaneously the maximum threshold of intensity for each color below which pixels do not show any statistical(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses1, 2. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus3–5. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular(More)
The HIV-1 virion-associated accessory protein Vpr affects both viral replication and cellular transcription, proliferation, and differentiation. We report that Vpr enhances the activity of glucocorticoids in lymphoid and muscle-derived cell lines by interacting directly with the glucocorticoid receptor and general transcription factors, acting as a(More)
Retroviral insertional mutagenesis in inbred mouse strains provides a powerful method for cancer gene discovery. Here, we show that a common retroviral integration site (RIS) in AKXD B-cell lymphomas, termed Evi3, encodes a novel zinc finger protein with 30 Krüppel-like zinc finger repeats. Most integrations at Evi3 are located upstream of the first(More)
In animal models, E1-deleted human adenoviral recombinants of the serotype 5 (AdHu5) have shown high efficacy as vaccine carriers for different Ags including those of HIV-1. Humans are infected by common serotypes of human adenovirus such as AdHu5 early in life and a significant percentage has high levels of neutralizing Abs to these serotypes, which will(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals(More)
DNA vaccines are a promising technology for the induction of Ag-specific immune responses, and much recent attention has gone into improving their immune potency. In this study we test the feasibility of delivering a plasmid encoding IL-15 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for the induction of improved Ag-specific CD8(+) T cellular immune responses. Because native(More)
IL-15 is an important cytokine for the function of the immune system, but the form(s) of IL-15 produced in the human body are not fully characterized. Coexpression of the single-chain IL-15 and the IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) in the same cell allows for efficient production, surface display, and eventual cleavage and secretion of the bioactive(More)
Recent studies have revealed the critical role of programmed death-1 (PD-1) in exhaustion of HIV- and SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we show that high expression of PD-1 correlates with increased ex vivo spontaneous and CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis, particularly in the "effector-memory" CD8(+) T cell population from HIV(+) donors. High expression(More)
IL-27 exerts antitumor activity in murine orthotopic neuroblastoma, but only partial antitumor effect in disseminated disease. This study demonstrates that combined treatment with IL-2 and IL-27 induces potent antitumor activity in disseminated neuroblastoma metastasis. Complete durable tumor regression was achieved in 90% of mice bearing metastatic(More)