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To increase cationic liposome-mediated intravenous DNA delivery extruded DOTAP:cholesterol liposomes were used to form complexes with DNA, resulting in enhanced expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in most tissues examined. The DNA:liposome ratio, and mild sonication, heating, and extrusion steps used for liposome preparation were(More)
Retroviral insertional mutagenesis in inbred mouse strains provides a powerful method for cancer gene discovery. Here, we show that a common retroviral integration site (RIS) in AKXD B-cell lymphomas, termed Evi3, encodes a novel zinc finger protein with 30 Krüppel-like zinc finger repeats. Most integrations at Evi3 are located upstream of the first(More)
In animal models, E1-deleted human adenoviral recombinants of the serotype 5 (AdHu5) have shown high efficacy as vaccine carriers for different Ags including those of HIV-1. Humans are infected by common serotypes of human adenovirus such as AdHu5 early in life and a significant percentage has high levels of neutralizing Abs to these serotypes, which will(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular immune(More)
The HIV-1 virion-associated accessory protein Vpr affects both viral replication and cellular transcription, proliferation, and differentiation. We report that Vpr enhances the activity of glucocorticoids in lymphoid and muscle-derived cell lines by interacting directly with the glucocorticoid receptor and general transcription factors, acting as a(More)
The HIV-1 Rev protein is an essential regulator of the HIV-1 mRNA expression that promotes the export of unspliced and partially spliced mRNA. The export receptor for the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) of Rev has recently been recognized as CRM1. We identified a low molecular weight compound PKF050-638 as an inhibitor of HIV-1 Rev. This drug(More)
The accessory Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a promiscuous activator of viral and cellular promoters. We report that Vpr enhances expression of the glucocorticoid receptor-induced mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter and of the Tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter by directly binding to p300/CBP coactivators.(More)
An HIV-1 vaccine able to induce broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses may provide long-term control of viral replication. In this study we directly assess the relative benefit of immunization with vaccines expressing three structural Ags (Gag, Pol, and Env), three early regulatory proteins (Rev, Tat, and Nef), or a complex vaccine expressing all six Ags. The(More)
A truncating E767stop mutation was introduced into the envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIV239-M5 (moderately sensitive to antibody-mediated neutralization and lacking five sites for N-linked carbohydrate attachment) and strain SIV316 (very sensitive to neutralization, with eight amino acid changes from the(More)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) recombinants induce durable immune responses in rhesus macaques and mice and have induced partial protection in rhesus macaques against mucosal challenge with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In this study, we evaluated the properties of a new generation HSV vaccine vector, an HSV-1 multiple immediate-early (IE) gene(More)