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FTY720 (fingolimod) is an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator under development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To elucidate its effects in the central nervous system (CNS), we compared functional parameters of nerve conductance in the DA rat model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune(More)
PURPOSE Proinflammatory signaling mechanisms are implicated in the induction of retinal neovascularization (NV) during ischemic retinopathies. This study examined transcription factor (TF) AP-1, HIF-1, and NF-kappaB DNA-binding in relation to cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and VEGF RNA and protein levels in hypoxia-triggered monkey choroidal retinal (RF/6A)(More)
PURPOSE Excitotoxicity is proposed to play a prominent role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death ensuing from diseases such as glaucoma and ischemia, but cell culture studies have used tissue from newborn rodents, yielding conflicting data that implicate either N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate (Glu) receptor-mediated pathways. Excitotoxic(More)
Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords:(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that reduced ocular blood flow plays a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. In patients with normal-tension glaucoma, ocular blood flow abnormalities may be associated with dysfunction of the endothelin 1 (ET-1) regulation system. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that unoprostone, a topical docosanoid, may affect(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pimecrolimus oil-based eye drops in alleviating the clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs and to compare the efficacy with that of cyclosporine A (CsA) ointment. An open-label, multicenter study enrolling 44 dogs previously untreated with CsA was conducted. Dogs were randomly(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as that of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors change in response to hypoxic exposure in a primate choroid-retinal endothelial cell line, and furthermore, whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a role in(More)
PURPOSE This study was performed to clarify the possible mechanism behind the ocular hypotensive effect of unoprostone isopropyl (Rescula; Novartis Ophthalmics AG, Basel, Switzerland), a new docosanoid that has been shown to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. To gain insight into the(More)
The breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) is a common feature of diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether there are genetic differences in susceptibility to the breakdown of the BRB in diabetic retinopathy using two rat models. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, Brown Norway (BN) rats developed sustained(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of contrast and luminance attenuation on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses of normal and glaucomatous eyes of cynomolgus monkeys. METHODS Nine adult male cynomolgus monkeys with unilateral experimentally induced glaucoma were used. Hypertension-induced damage was confirmed by tomography of the optic disc.(More)