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PURPOSE Proinflammatory signaling mechanisms are implicated in the induction of retinal neovascularization (NV) during ischemic retinopathies. This study examined transcription factor (TF) AP-1, HIF-1, and NF-kappaB DNA-binding in relation to cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and VEGF RNA and protein levels in hypoxia-triggered monkey choroidal retinal (RF/6A)(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that reduced ocular blood flow plays a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. In patients with normal-tension glaucoma, ocular blood flow abnormalities may be associated with dysfunction of the endothelin 1 (ET-1) regulation system. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that unoprostone, a topical docosanoid, may affect(More)
PURPOSE Excitotoxicity is proposed to play a prominent role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death ensuing from diseases such as glaucoma and ischemia, but cell culture studies have used tissue from newborn rodents, yielding conflicting data that implicate either N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate (Glu) receptor-mediated pathways. Excitotoxic(More)
FTY720 (fingolimod) is an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator under development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To elucidate its effects in the central nervous system (CNS), we compared functional parameters of nerve conductance in the DA rat model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune(More)
With the increasing use of the rat as an animal model for glaucoma and for the evaluation of neuroprotective treatments, there is a need for a sensitive test of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function in this species. The aims of this study were to detect functional abnormalities of the inner retina in a rat model of high intraocular pressure (IOP) using the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the cellular sources underlying the functional damage observed by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) responses of glaucomatous eyes of monkeys. METHODS First- and second-order (K1 and K2, respectively) mfERG responses of three normal and three experimentally induced glaucomatous eyes of cynomolgus monkeys were measured at two(More)
PURPOSE To compare the vasoactive properties of the docosanoid unoprostone, its free acid, and different members of the prostanoid family on isolated perfused pig retinal arterioles to assess their potential to modulate retinal blood flow. METHODS Segments of porcine retinal arterioles were dissected, cannulated, and perfused, and their diameter monitored(More)
Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords:(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pimecrolimus oil-based eye drops in alleviating the clinical signs of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs and to compare the efficacy with that of cyclosporine A (CsA) ointment. An open-label, multicenter study enrolling 44 dogs previously untreated with CsA was conducted. Dogs were randomly(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as that of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors change in response to hypoxic exposure in a primate choroid-retinal endothelial cell line, and furthermore, whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a role in(More)