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FTY720 (fingolimod) is an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator under development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). To elucidate its effects in the central nervous system (CNS), we compared functional parameters of nerve conductance in the DA rat model of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune(More)
PURPOSE Excitotoxicity is proposed to play a prominent role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death ensuing from diseases such as glaucoma and ischemia, but cell culture studies have used tissue from newborn rodents, yielding conflicting data that implicate either N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate (Glu) receptor-mediated pathways. Excitotoxic(More)
PURPOSE Proinflammatory signaling mechanisms are implicated in the induction of retinal neovascularization (NV) during ischemic retinopathies. This study examined transcription factor (TF) AP-1, HIF-1, and NF-kappaB DNA-binding in relation to cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and VEGF RNA and protein levels in hypoxia-triggered monkey choroidal retinal (RF/6A)(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as that of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors change in response to hypoxic exposure in a primate choroid-retinal endothelial cell line, and furthermore, whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays a role in(More)
This study investigated the neuroprotective effect of somatostatin, cortistatin and agonists at somatostatin(2) (sst(2)) receptors in retinal explants subjected to chemical ischaemia. Eyecups of female Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were immersed in PBS buffer or PBS containing iodoacetic acid (IAA; 0.5, 5, 50, 100 mM) and sodium cyanide (NaCN; 2.5, 25,(More)
PURPOSE To examine the impact of experimental ischemia and interruption of glutamate transport on retinal neuronal cell, especially retinal ganglion cell (RGC), survival in vitro. METHODS Cell cultures were prepared from adult pig retinas and maintained under different experimental conditions of increasing hypoglycemia, environmental hypoxia (delayed(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of contrast and luminance attenuation on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) responses of normal and glaucomatous eyes of cynomolgus monkeys. METHODS Nine adult male cynomolgus monkeys with unilateral experimentally induced glaucoma were used. Hypertension-induced damage was confirmed by tomography of the optic disc.(More)
With the increasing use of the rat as an animal model for glaucoma and for the evaluation of neuroprotective treatments, there is a need for a sensitive test of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function in this species. The aims of this study were to detect functional abnormalities of the inner retina in a rat model of high intraocular pressure (IOP) using the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the cellular sources underlying the functional damage observed by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) responses of glaucomatous eyes of monkeys. METHODS First- and second-order (K1 and K2, respectively) mfERG responses of three normal and three experimentally induced glaucomatous eyes of cynomolgus monkeys were measured at two(More)
Atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, is currently the most potent agent used to prevent myopia in animal models and children. However, the ocular target tissues are not well defined. To learn more about the effect of atropine on experimental myopia, atropine was applied both intravitreally and systemically (intraperitoneally) to(More)