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Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Important mediators of inflammation such as the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its superfamily member fibroblast-associated cell-surface ligand (FasL) have been implicated in apoptosis.(More)
The anti-tumour effects of thalidomide have been associated with its anti-angiogenic properties. Second generation thalidomide analogues are distinct compounds with enhanced therapeutic potential. Although these compounds are beginning to enter trials for the treatment of cancer there is very little information regarding the anti-angiogenic activity of(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is hampered by the long duration of antibiotic therapy required to achieve cure. This indolent response has been partly attributed to the ability of subpopulations of less metabolically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to withstand killing by current anti-TB drugs. We have used immune modulation with a phosphodiesterase-4(More)
BACKGROUND Ocular melanoma is the leading intraocular malignancy. There is no effective treatment for metastatic ocular melanoma. We sought a treatment targeting the tumor microenvironment as well as the tumor cells. METHODS Migration of HUVEC cells, the ability of HUVEC cells to form tubes, and proliferative capacity of a human ocular melanoma cell line(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the leading infectious disease causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though current antibiotic regimens can cure the disease, treatment requires at least six months of drug therapy. One reason for the long duration of therapy is that the currently available TB drugs were selected(More)
We assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of the immunomodulatory drug, CC-5013 (REVIMID trade mark ), in the treatment of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma and other advanced cancers. A total of 20 heavily pretreated patients received a dose-escalating regimen of oral CC-5013. Maximal tolerated dose, toxicity and clinical responses were(More)
Reliable quantitative evaluation of molecular pathways is critical for both drug discovery and treatment monitoring. We have modified the CAM assay to quantitatively measure vascular density, endothelial proliferation, and changes in protein expression in response to anti-angiogenic and pro-angiogenic agents. This improved CAM assay can correlate changes in(More)
Severe chronic neuropathic pain, which can profoundly and negatively affect quality of life, is usually caused by damage to peripheral nerve tissue from various physical, thermal, or chemical agents and is difficult to relieve. Commonly used opioids are quite effective in relieving nociceptive pain, but nerves that are damaged send pain-sensing fibers into(More)