George M. Whitesides

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Human and bovine capillary endothelial cells were switched from growth to apoptosis by using micropatterned substrates that contained extracellular matrix-coated adhesive islands of decreasing size to progressively restrict cell extension. Cell spreading also was varied while maintaining the total cell-matrix contact area constant by changing the spacing(More)
This paper describes a procedure that makes it possible to design and fabricate (including sealing) microfluidic systems in an elastomeric material [Formula: see text] poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) [Formula: see text] in less than 24 h. A network of microfluidic channels (with width >20 μm) is designed in a CAD program. This design is converted into a(More)
The manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens of micrometres--microfluidics--has emerged as a distinct new field. Microfluidics has the potential to influence subject areas from chemical synthesis and biological analysis to optics and information technology. But the field is still at an early stage of development. Even as the basic science(More)
Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary (weather systems) scale and many different kinds of interactions. The concept of self-assembly is used(More)
It is difficult to mix solutions in microchannels. Under typical operating conditions, flows in these channels are laminar-the spontaneous fluctuations of velocity that tend to homogenize fluids in turbulent flows are absent, and molecular diffusion across the channels is slow. We present a passive method for mixing streams of steady pressure-driven flows(More)
Microfluidic devices are finding increasing application as analytical systems, biomedical devices, tools for chemistry and biochemistry, and systems for fundamental research. Conventional methods of fabricating microfluidic devices have centered on etching in glass and silicon. Fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft(More)
This Account summarizes techniques for fabrication and applications in biomedicine of microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The methods and applications described focus on the exploitation of the physical and chemical properties of PDMS in the fabrication or actuation of the devices. Fabrication of channels in PDMS is simple, and(More)
This paper describes the compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with organic solvents; this compatibility is important in considering the potential of PDMS-based microfluidic devices in a number of applications, including that of microreactors for organic reactions. We considered three aspects of compatibility: the swelling of PDMS in a solvent, the(More)
In areas from assembly of machines to surgery, and from deactivation of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to unmanned flight, robotics is an important and rapidly growing field of science and technology. It is currently dominated by robots having hard body plans—constructions largely of metal structural elements and conventional joints—and actuated by(More)