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Taste receptor cells (TRCs) respond to acid stimulation, initiating perception of sour taste. Paradoxically, the pH of weak acidic stimuli correlates poorly with the perception of their sourness. A fundamental issue surrounding sour taste reception is the identity of the sour stimulus. We tested the hypothesis that acids induce sour taste perception by(More)
Osmotic effects on salt taste were studied by recording from the rat chorda tympani (CT) nerve and by measuring changes in cell volume of isolated rat fungiform taste receptor cells (TRCs). Mannitol, cellobiose, urea, or DMSO did not induce CT responses. However, the steady-state CT responses to 150 mM NaCl were significantly increased when the stimulus(More)
Sourness is a primary taste quality that evokes an innate rejection response in humans and many other animals. Acidic stimuli are the unique sources of sour taste so a rejection response may serve to discourage ingestion of foods spoiled by acid producing microorganisms. The investigation of mechanisms by which acids excite taste receptor cells (TRCs) is(More)
Chorda tympani taste nerve responses to NaCl can be dissected pharmacologically into amiloride-sensitive and -insensitive components. It is now established that the amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel acts as a sodium-specific ion detector in taste receptor cells (TRCs). Much less is known regarding the cellular origin of the(More)
Stool osmolality and electrolyte measurements were obtained from 12 patients with diarrheal disorders. Osmolality of diarrheal stool (285 to 330 mosmol) regardless of the cause is less than the reported osmolality of normal stool. Storage of stool at room temperature can artifactually increase stool osmolality as the result of bacterial metabolism. When(More)
We studied the effects of changing external pH (pHo), external bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3-]o), and PCO2 on taste receptor cell (TRC) intracellular pH (pHi) in taste bud fragments (TBFs) isolated from rat circumvallate and fungiform papillae with the pH-sensitive fluoroprobe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) using(More)
HCl- and NaCl-induced hamster chorda tympani nerve responses were recorded during voltage clamp of the lingual receptive field. Voltage perturbations did not influence responses to HCl. In contrast, responses to NaCl were decreased by submucosal-positive and increased by submucosal-negative voltage clamp. Responses to HCl were insensitive to the Na+ channel(More)
We studied rat distal colon during in vitro incubation with aldosterone and dexamethasone. Both hormones caused short-circuit current (Isc) to increase with a latency period of approximately 3 h. At the 7th h of incubation, control colons had a Isc of 72 +/- 8 microA . cm-2 while tissues incubated with 10(-5) M aldosterone and 10(-8) M dexamethasone, the(More)
Alterations in extracellular (pHo) and/or intracellular pH (pHi) have significant effects on the apical Na+ conductive transport in tight epithelia. They influence apical membrane Na+ conductance via a direct effect on amiloride-sensitive apical Na+ channel activity and indirectly through effects on the basolateral Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Changes in pH also(More)
Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and(More)