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Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and has been proposed as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The flowering part of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) (PGF) has been recommended in Unani literature as a remedy for diabetes. We investigated the effect and action mechanism of a(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of conversion to lacosamide 400 mg/day monotherapy in adults with focal epilepsy. METHODS This historical-controlled, double-blind study (NCT00520741) enrolled patients aged 16-70 years on stable doses of 1-2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and experiencing 2-40 partial-onset seizures per 28 days during the 8-week(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is a major fibrinolytic inhibitor. High PAI-1 is associated with increased renal and cardiovascular disease risk. Previous studies demonstrated PAI-1 down-regulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)₂D₃), but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that exposure of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to TNFα(More)
Vitamin D inhibits renin expression and blocks the compensatory induction of renin associated with the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors. Here we test the therapeutic effects of two commonly used vitamin D analogs and their combination with losartan on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. One-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive(More)
Kudzu root (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, a semi-woody, perennial and leguminous vine native to South East Asia. It is often used interchangeably in traditional Chinese medicine with thomson kudzu root (Fengen in Chinese), the dried root of P. thomsonii, although the Chinese Pharmacopoeia has separated them into two(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activators are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because they improve the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Punica granatum flower (PGF) has been used as an anti-diabetic medicine in Unani medicinal literature. The mechanism of actions is, however, unknown. In the current study, we(More)
The diabetic heart shows increased fibrosis, which impairs cardiac function. Endothelin (ET)-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) interactively regulate fibroblast growth. We have recently demonstrated that Punica granatum flower (PGF), a Unani anti-diabetic medicine, is a dual activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and(More)
Propolis is a honeybee product with broad clinical applications. Current literature describes that propolis is collected from plant resins. From a systematic database search, 241 compounds were identified in propolis for the first time between 2000 and 2012; and they belong to such diverse chemical classes as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, terpenenes,(More)
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we showed that combination therapy with an AT(1) receptor blocker (ARB) and an activated vitamin D analog produced excellent synergistic effects against diabetic nephropathy, as a result of blockade of the ARB-induced compensatory renin(More)
Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation and increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation in the diabetic heart contribute to cardiac dysfunction. Punica granatum flower (PGF) is a traditional antidiabetic medicine. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of PGF extract on abnormal cardiac lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. Long-term oral(More)