George Leblanc

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It has been postulated that the developing sympathetic innervation of rat eccrine sweat glands changes from adrenergic to cholinergic under the influence of its target. In agreement with previous evidence that the sympathetic innervation of adult rat sweat glands is cholinergic, we found that choline acetyltransferase (CAT)-immunoreactive nerve fibers are(More)
Rat pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase is controlled similarly to adrenal medullary phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the in vivo cofactor utilized by the enzyme to convert N-acetylserotonin to melatonin, protects this methyltransferase against tryptic proteolysis in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo studies suggest that(More)
Catecholamine synthetic enzymes are found in many cranial parasympathetic principal neurons, and in the small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells that populate parasympathetic as well as sympathetic ganglia. While there is evidence that the acquisition of noradrenergic properties in sympathetic neuron precursors depends on factors that these cells encounter(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. We report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive(More)
Several studies have suggested that the development of cholinergic properties in cranial parasympathetic neurons is determined by these cells' axial level of origin in the neural crest. All cranial parasympathetic neurons normally derive from cranial neural crest. Trunk neural crest cells give rise to sympathetic neurons, most of which are noradrenergic. To(More)
We recently showed that neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity occurs in subpopulations of neurons in 3 cranial parasympathetic ganglia: the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary. The present work identifies the target tissues innervated by cranial parasympathetic NPY-immunoreactive neurons. Plexuses of NPY-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the parotid(More)
Cranial and trunk neural crest cells produce different derivatives in vitro. Cranial neural crest cultures produce large numbers of cells expressing fibronectin (FN) and procollagen I (PCol I) immunoreactivities, two markers expressed by mesenchymal derivatives in vivo. Trunk neural crest cultures produce relatively few FN or PCol I immunoreactive cells,(More)
Measurements of the fluorescent properties of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate (pyranine) enclosed within the internal space of Escherichia coli membrane vesicles enable recordings and quantitative analysis of: (i) changes in intravesicular pH taking place during oxidation of electron donors by the membrane respiratory chain; (ii) transient alkalization(More)
Spectral reflectance within the 350–2500 nm range was measured for 17 pelts of arctic mammals (polar bear, caribou, muskox, and ringed, harp and bearded seals) in relation to snow. Reflectance of all pelts was very low at the ultraviolet (UV) end of the spectrum (<10%), increased through the visual and near infrared, peaking at 40%–60% between 1100 and 1400(More)
Different anteroposterior (AP) regions of the neural crest normally produce different cell types, both in vivo and in vitro. AP differences in neural crest cell fates appear to be specified in part by mechanisms that act prior to neural crest cell migration. We, therefore, examined the possibility that the fates of neural crest cells, like those of neural(More)