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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with more than 170 million infected individuals at risk of developing significant morbidity and mortality. Current interferon-based therapies are suboptimal especially in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and they are poorly tolerated, highlighting the unmet medical(More)
Significant advances have led to receptor induced-fit and conformational selection models for describing bimolecular recognition, but a more comprehensive view must evolve to also include ligand shape and conformational changes. Here, we describe an example where a ligand's "structural hinge" influences potency by inducing an "L-shape" bioactive(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS BI201335 is a highly specific and potent HCV protease inhibitor. This multiple rising dose trial evaluated antiviral activity and safety in chronic HCV genotype-1 patients. METHODS Thirty-four treatment-naïve patients were randomized to monotherapy with placebo or BI201335 at 20-240 mg once-daily for 14 days, followed by combination with(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Therapeutic regimens are being developed for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that do not include the combination of peginterferon alfa and ribavirin. We investigated the antiviral effect and safety of BI 201335 (an inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease) and BI 207127 (an inhibitor of the NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase) with(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects liver cells and its replication in other cells is incompletely defined. Human hepatoma Huh-7 cells harboring subgenomic HCV replicons were used in somatic cell fusion experiments with human embryonic kidney 293 cells as a means of examining the permissiveness of 293 cells for HCV subgenomic RNA replication. 293 cells were(More)
The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
The interaction of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with RNA substrate is incompletely defined. We have characterized the activities of the HCV NS5B polymerase, modified by different deletions and affinity tags, with a routinely used homopolymeric substrate, and established apparent affinities of the various NS5B constructs both for(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS BI 207127 is a potent non-nucleoside hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor in vitro. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 57 HCV genotype (GT)-1 patients (n=27 treatment-naïve [TN]; n=30 treatment-experienced [TE]) with compensated liver disease were randomised for 28-day treatment with 400, 600, or 800 mg(More)
Coexpression of CD160 and PD-1 on HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells defines a highly exhausted T-cell subset. CD160 binds to Herpes Virus Entry Mediator (HVEM) and blocking this interaction with HVEM antibodies reverses T-cell exhaustion. As HVEM binds both inhibitory and activatory receptors, our aim in the current study was to assess the impact of CD160-specific(More)
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR)(More)