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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with more than 170 million infected individuals at risk of developing significant morbidity and mortality. Current interferon-based therapies are suboptimal especially in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and they are poorly tolerated, highlighting the unmet medical(More)
The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
Significant advances have led to receptor induced-fit and conformational selection models for describing bimolecular recognition, but a more comprehensive view must evolve to also include ligand shape and conformational changes. Here, we describe an example where a ligand's "structural hinge" influences potency by inducing an "L-shape" bioactive(More)
Ner repressors of the transposable phages Mu and D108 play a central role in regulating the expression of the early (transposase) operon and in ensuring that phage growth proceeds along a lytic pathway. The latter function is analogous to that performed by the Cro protein of phage lambda. Unlike lambda Cro, however, the structural basis of operator(More)
The lytic-lysogenic switch in transposable, Mu-like bacteriophage D108 is governed by two divergent and slightly overlapping transcription units originating from the Pe and Pc promoters. DNase I footprinting and in vivo mutational analysis suggest that lysogeny is maintained by c-repressor occupancy of the O2 operator, which precludes RNA polymerase from(More)
Bictegravir (BIC; GS-9883), a novel, potent, once-daily, unboosted inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase (IN), specifically targets IN strand transfer activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 7.5 ± 0.3 nM) and HIV-1 integration in cells. BIC exhibits potent and selective in vitro antiretroviral activity in both T-cell lines and primary human T lymphocytes,(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-free regimens would be a major advance in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS In this phase 2b, randomized, open-label trial of faldaprevir (a protease inhibitor) and deleobuvir (a nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor), we randomly assigned 362 previously untreated patients with HCV(More)
UNLABELLED Faldaprevir (BI 201335) is a potent, hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor with pharmacokinetic properties supportive of once-daily (QD) dosing. Four hundred and twenty-nine HCV genotype (GT)-1 treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis were randomized 1:1:2:2 to receive 24 weeks of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin(More)
BI 201335 is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A (NS3 coexpressed with NS4A) protease inhibitor that has been shown to have potent clinical antiviral activity. It is a highly optimized noncovalent competitive inhibitor of full-length NS3-NS4A proteases of HCV genotypes 1a and 1b with K(i) values of 2.6 and 2.0 nM, respectively. K(i) values of 2 to 230 nM(More)
UNLABELLED Faldaprevir (BI 201335) is a potent, hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In all, 290 noncirrhotic HCV genotype (GT)-1 patients with prior null (<1 log10 viral load [VL] drop at any time on treatment) or partial response (≥1 log10 VL drop but never undetectable on treatment) were randomized 2:1:1 to receive 48 weeks of peginterferon(More)