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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with more than 170 million infected individuals at risk of developing significant morbidity and mortality. Current interferon-based therapies are suboptimal especially in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and they are poorly tolerated, highlighting the unmet medical(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterised by a failure of virus-specific CD8+ T cells that is mainly caused by viral escape and T cell exhaustion. Constant antigen stimulation has been suggested to contribute to HCV-specific CD8+ T cell exhaustion. However, IFN-based therapies failed to recover HCV-specific CD8+ T cell(More)
The composition and subcellular trafficking of subviral preintegration complexes are reported to vary among the different retroviruses. The process by which the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) preintegration complex gains access to target chromatin remains unknown. Here we report that ASV integrase (IN) expressed as a fusion to beta-galactosidase accumulates in(More)
Selection of transgenic embryos prior to embryo transfer is a means to increase the efficiency of transgenic livestock production. Among transgenic reporters, cytoplasmic expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) has features that make it ideal for transgenic embryo selection. The primary objective of this study was to assess cytoplasmic expression of a(More)
Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα) is an essential host cell factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. An N-terminally truncated 130-kDa form was used to reconstitute an in vitro biochemical lipid kinase assay that was optimized for small-molecule compound screening and identified potent and specific inhibitors. Cell culture studies with(More)
Significant advances have led to receptor induced-fit and conformational selection models for describing bimolecular recognition, but a more comprehensive view must evolve to also include ligand shape and conformational changes. Here, we describe an example where a ligand's "structural hinge" influences potency by inducing an "L-shape" bioactive(More)
Ner repressors of the transposable phages Mu and D108 play a central role in regulating the expression of the early (transposase) operon and in ensuring that phage growth proceeds along a lytic pathway. The latter function is analogous to that performed by the Cro protein of phage lambda. Unlike lambda Cro, however, the structural basis of operator(More)
The lytic-lysogenic switch in transposable, Mu-like bacteriophage D108 is governed by two divergent and slightly overlapping transcription units originating from the Pe and Pc promoters. DNase I footprinting and in vivo mutational analysis suggest that lysogeny is maintained by c-repressor occupancy of the O2 operator, which precludes RNA polymerase from(More)
Bictegravir (BIC; GS-9883), a novel, potent, once-daily, unboosted inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase (IN), specifically targets IN strand transfer activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 7.5 ± 0.3 nM) and HIV-1 integration in cells. BIC exhibits potent and selective in vitro antiretroviral activity in both T-cell lines and primary human T lymphocytes,(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-free regimens would be a major advance in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS In this phase 2b, randomized, open-label trial of faldaprevir (a protease inhibitor) and deleobuvir (a nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor), we randomly assigned 362 previously untreated patients with HCV(More)