George K. Iwama

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Despite decades of intensive investigation, important questions remain regarding the functional, ecological, and evolutionary roles of heat shock proteins. In this paper, we discuss the utility of fish as a model system to address these questions, and review the relevant studies of heat shock protein genes and the regulation of their expression in fish.(More)
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins expressed in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stressors. They are thus also referred to as stress proteins. Their extraordinarily high degree of identity at the amino acid sequence level and the fact that this cellular stress response has been described in nearly all organisms studied, make(More)
The use of genomic DNA-based techniques in ecological and evolutionary studies has been limited by the availability of suitable probes for species of interest due to the technical difficulty of isolating and applying such probes. We have developed a simple technique that directs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to regions rich in variable(More)
We studied the relationship between heat stress (2 h, +12 degrees ) and increased levels of circulating cortisol (50 microg cortisol/g body weight) on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) levels in liver and gill tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). The administration of cortisol by intraperitoneal injection (no(More)
Few studies have made direct estimates of the energy required for ion transport in gills of freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) fish. Oxygen consumption was measured in excised gill tissue of FW-adapted cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) to estimate the energy cost of NaCl transport in that osmoregulatory organ. Ouabain (0.5 mM) and bafilomycin A1(More)
A response in heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) expression in the beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) treated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) corresponded to altered metabolic status of the liver as evidenced by the lower phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), lactate dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activities. The BNF-induced increase in hsp70(More)
The relationship between stress protein (SP) levels and the hormonal stress response in salmonids was examined through the measurement of gill SP70 and SP30 levels together with plasma cortisol, glucose and ion concentrations, in response to handling stress (45 s holding in a net), intraperitoneal cortisol implants, and heat shock (+10 °C). Handling and(More)
In response to most stressors, fish will elicit a generalized physiological stress response, which involves the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI). As in other vertebrates, this generalized stress response comprises physiological responses that are common to a wide range of environmental, physical and biological stressors.(More)
Recent research has identified endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptides as important factors in the innate immunity of many organisms, including fish. It is known that antimicrobial activity, as well as lysozyme activity, can be induced in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) mucus after exposure of the fish to infectious agents. Since lysozyme alone does(More)
Values for carbon dioxide solubility (alpha CO2) and the apparent first dissociation constant (pKapp) of carbonic acid in rainbow trout plasma were measured at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C so as to eliminate the uncertainties with continued use of mammalian values extrapolated from the much higher temperatures of their determination. Estimates of pKapp were based(More)