George Justus Hofmeyr

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BACKGROUND Calcium supplementation may prevent high blood pressure through a number of mechanisms and may help to prevent preterm labour. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review was to assess the effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related maternal and child adverse outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY We(More)
BACKGROUND Historically, women have been attended and supported by other women during labour. However, in recent decades in hospitals worldwide, continuous support during labour has become the exception rather than the routine. Concerns about the consequent dehumanization of women's birth experiences have led to calls for a return to continuous support by(More)
Commercial sealing in the 18th and 19th centuries had a major impact on the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seal populations (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) in the Southern Ocean. The intensive and unrestricted nature of the industry ensured substantial reductions in population sizes and resulted in both species becoming locally extinct at some(More)
BACKGROUND For centuries, there has been controversy around whether being upright (sitting, birthing stools, chairs, squatting, kneeling) or lying down have advantages for women delivering their babies. OBJECTIVES To assess the benefits and risks of the use of different positions during the second stage of labour (i.e. from full dilatation of the uterine(More)
BACKGROUND Misoprostol (Cytotec, Searle) is a prostaglandin E1 analogue marketed for use in the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It is inexpensive, easily stored at room temperature and has few systemic side effects. It is rapidly absorbed orally and vaginally. Although not registered for such use, misoprostol has been widely used for(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of uterine rupture worldwide. DESIGN Systematic review of all available data since 1990. SETTING Community-based and facility-based reports from urban and rural studies worldwide. Sample Eighty-three reports of uterine rupture rates are included in the systematic review. Most are facility based using cross-sectional(More)
BACKGROUND Prostaglandins have mainly been used for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when other measures fail. Misoprostol, a new and inexpensive prostaglandin E1 analogue, has been suggested as an alternative for routine management of the third stage of labour. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of prophylactic prostaglandin use in the third stage of labour.(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal movement counting is a method by which a woman quantifies the movements she feels to assess the condition of the baby. The purpose is to try to reduce perinatal mortality by alerting caregivers when the baby might have become compromised. This method may be used routinely, or only in women who are considered at increased risk of(More)
BACKGROUND The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean delivery. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean delivery. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials(More)
BACKGROUND Instrumental or assisted vaginal birth is commonly used to expedite birth for the benefit of either mother or baby or both. It is sometimes associated with significant complications for both mother and baby. The choice of instrument may be influenced by clinical circumstances, operator choice and availability of specific instruments. OBJECTIVES(More)