George John Shepherd

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The relative densities of arboreal species of 17 surveys carried out in the Atlantic Ombrophilous Dense Forest of São Paulo state, SE Brazil, were compared by means of multivariate analysis (cluster, TWINSPAN, PCA, DCA and CCA) to assess floristic and structural variation. The arboreal flora of this vegetation formation is heterogeneous: out of the 771(More)
Morphometric analyses of vegetative and floral characters were conducted in 21 populations of five Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) species occurring in Brazilian 'campo rupestre' vegetation. A phylogenetic analysis of this species group was also carried out using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2). Results of the ordination and(More)
Experimental self-, cross- and interspecific pollinations were carried out inBulbophyllum weddellii, B. involutum andB. ipanemense (Orchidaceae). The last two species are closely related, butB. weddellii is somewhat more distant. The three species are self-compatible, with pollination by a vector necessary for fruit formation. In all crossing types, high(More)
Controlled pollinations and observations of pollen tube growth, pollen fertility and cytological data were studied in 11 species ofMelastomataceae growing in “cerrado” in SE Brazil. Seven species produced apomictic fruits with viable seeds. Four species were not apomictic, with two self-incompatible (gametophytic SI) and two self-compatible, one showing(More)
Floral visitors of seven species of Oxypetalum were registered in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais. O. appendiculatum, O. banksii subsp, banksii, O. alpinumn var. alpinum and O. pachyglossum are pollinated by wasps, being Polybia ignobilis (Vespidae) a pollinator of these four species. It seems that P ignobilis promotes interspecific pollinations mainly(More)
In a previous study near the summit of Mt. Cuscuzeiro (Ubatuba, SP) (820–1270 m), on the SE Brazilian coast, we found two floristically different forests, one above 1120 m, that appears to have a number of features typical of cloud forests, and another on the lower altitude slopes below. Taking these two forests as reference points, we addressed two(More)
Three known and two new diterpenes were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa seed pods. One of the compounds was elucidated as (5R*,8S*,9S*,10R*)-cleroda-3,13E-dien-15-oic acid and the other was elucidated, after treatment with diazomethane, as methyl (5S*,8S*,9S*,10R*)-cleroda-3,13E-dien-15-oate. The known(More)
Comparisons of species richness among assemblages using different sample sizes may produce erroneous conclusions due to the strong positive relationship between richness and sample size. A current way of handling the problem is to standardize sample sizes to the size of the smallest sample in the study. A major criticism about this approach is the loss of(More)
The chemical composition of floral volatiles of sixteen species of Clusia (Guttiferae) belonging to four different taxonomic sections of the genus was investigated. The volatiles were extracted from fresh petals by microhydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. The composition of the volatiles was in part, but not always, related to the taxonomic position of(More)
The floristic composition (trees) of 26 forests in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was compared using cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO) with simple Euclidean distance. The results obtained indicate the existence of two floristically distinct groups of forests. One group contains forests from higher areas (above 700 m) with a colder(More)