George Johan Arnold Offerhaus

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The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling at telomeres and other genomic sites. Because inactivating mutations of these genes are common in human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), we examined the telomere status of these tumors. We found that 61% of PanNETs displayed abnormal telomeres that are characteristic of a(More)
Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain genetically and phenotypically stable. Here we utilize(More)
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies due to its late diagnosis and limited response to treatment. Tractable methods to identify and interrogate pathways involved in pancreatic tumorigenesis are urgently needed. We established organoid models from normal and neoplastic murine and human pancreas tissues. Pancreatic organoids can be rapidly(More)
Research on the LKB1 tumor suppressor protein mutated in cancer-prone Peutz-Jeghers patients has continued at a feverish pace following exciting developments linking energy metabolism and cancer development. This review summarizes the current state of research on the LKB1 tumor suppressor. The weight of the evidence currently indicates an evolutionary(More)
Specific ('1)44 variant glycoproteins are overexpressed at particular stages of colorectal tumor progression. Some variants of the C 1)44 glyco-protein without exon v6 sequences appear at the earliest stage of tumor-igenesis, i.e., in early adenomas. Expression of variants containing exon v6 sequences is largely restricted to the advanced stages of tumor(More)
Despite ongoing advances in the treatment of gastroesophageal cancer, prognosis remains poor. The best promise to improve this poor survival is provided by new targeted agents. Of these, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is currently in the spotlight. In this review, we provide an overview of recent developments in HER2 testing and results of(More)
Tissue microarray (TMA) technology has been developed to facilitate high-throughput immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis of tissues by inserting small tissue biopsy cores into a single paraffin block. Several studies have revealed novel prognostic biomarkers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by means of TMA technology, although(More)
Little is known about the signaling mechanisms that determine the highly regular patterning of the intestinal epithelium into crypts and villi. With the use of mouse models, we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 expression occurs exclusively in the intravillus mesenchyme. Villus epithelial cells respond to the BMP signal. Inhibition of BMP(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have chemopreventive potential against colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 underlies part of this effect, although COX-2-independent mechanisms may also exist. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appear to inhibit the initial stages of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, suggesting a(More)
The immensity of genes and molecules implicated in gastric carcinogenesis is overwhelming and the relevant importance of some of these molecules is too often unclear. This review serves to bring us up-to-date with the latest findings as well as to look at the larger picture in terms of how to tackle the problem of solving this multi-piece puzzle. In this(More)