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DNA molecules containing unmethylated CpG-dinucleotides in particular base contexts ("CpG motifs") are excellent adjuvants in rodents, but their effects on human cells have been less clear. Dendritic cells (DCs) form the link between the innate and the acquired immune system and may influence the balance between T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses. We(More)
PURPOSE We designed and conducted a randomized single-institution trial comparing two common prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds in patients undergoing induction therapy for acute leukemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS Seventy-eight patients undergoing induction therapy for acute leukemia were randomized to receive prophylactic apheresis platelet(More)
Rituximab is a mainstay in the therapy for a broad variety of B-cell malignancies. Despite its undeniable therapeutic value, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of action responsible for rituximab's anti-tumor effects. Direct signaling, complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC), and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) all appear to play(More)
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement fixation both appear to play a role in mediating antitumor effects of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including rituximab. We evaluated the relationship between rituximab-induced complement fixation, natural killer (NK)-cell activation, and NK cell-mediated ADCC. Down-modulation of NK- cell CD16(More)
Immune stimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with unmethylated CpG motifs are potent inducers of both innate and adaptive immunity. It initially appeared that a single type of optimal CpG motif would work in all applications. We now report that specific motifs of CpG ODN can vary dramatically in their ability to induce individual immune effects and that(More)
Human B cells detect CpG motifs within microbial DNA via TLR9. Synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are currently being tested in clinical trials for the therapy of different types of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, there is only limited information on the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide sensitivity of primary malignant B cells of different non-Hodgkin's(More)
Rituximab and IFN have each demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A single-arm, multicenter, Phase II trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of combination therapy with rituximab and IFN-alpha-2a in 38 patients with relapsed or refractory, low-grade or follicular, B-cell NHL. IFN-alpha-2a(More)
Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (IS ODN) can mediate a number of immunologic effects. We previously demonstrated that treatment of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells with one class of IS ODN, CpG ODN, alters their phenotype and increases their immunogenicity. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the classic understanding of CpG(More)
Cancer immunotherapy has proven to be challenging as it depends on overcoming multiple mechanisms that mediate immune tolerance to self-antigens. A growing understanding of immune tolerance has been the foundation for new approaches to cancer immunotherapy. Adoptive transfer of immune effectors such as antitumor mAb and chimeric antigen receptor T cells(More)
We have previously reported that crosslinking HLA-DR directly induces programmed cell death of malignant B cells. The present study further characterizes the biochemical mechanism for HLA-DR-mediated programmed cell death of tumor cells. Phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane and propidium iodide incorporation occur with very rapid kinetics and(More)